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Personal definitions

Absentee

An absentee is identified on the census dwelling form as someone who usually lives in a particular dwelling, but has not completed a census individual form there – because the person was elsewhere in New Zealand or overseas on census night. Such a person may have completed a census individual form elsewhere in New Zealand.

Included as absentees in the census are children away at boarding school, people away on business or holiday, in hospital, and so on.

Excluded are long-term hospital patients and tertiary (including university) students who live away from the dwelling for most of the year.

Actively seeking work

To be actively seeking work, a person must search for a job other than by reading job advertisements. Examples of actively-seeking-work activities are:

  • writing, phoning, sending email, or applying in person to an employer
  • contacting a private employment agency
  • contacting a careers adviser or a vocational guidance officer
  • contacting Work and Income New Zealand to look for a job
  • placing an advertisement to find a job
  • asking friends or relatives for help in finding a job
  • taking steps to set up a business.

The variable ‘actively seeking work’ contributes to the derivation of the work and labour force status; it only applies to a person aged 15 years and over who was not employed on census day.

See also ‘Job search methods’ on this page.

Age

Age is the length of time a person has been alive, measured in complete, elapsed years. It is measured as the difference between ‘date of birth’ and 5 March 2013.

Age imputation

Age imputation supplies an age in years where age is missing (that is, age cannot be calculated from the response to the date-of-birth question).

Age is imputed using various other responses, for example, a person’s legally registered relationship status, and using the known distribution of ages in the population.

See also ‘Imputation’ on this page.

Availability for work

Availability for work refers to whether a person would have started a paid job in the week ended 3 March 2013, if a job had been available. This question only applies to people aged 15 years and over who are not employed.

Availability for work is one of the variables that contribute to the derivation of labour force status.

Birthplace

Birthplace refers to the country where a person was born, and uses the name of the country at the time of the census. Country is the current, short or official name of a country, dependency, or other area of particular geopolitical interest. The term is defined to include:

  • independent countries recognised by the New Zealand Government
  • units that are recognised geographic areas
  • administrative subdivisions of Australia and the United Kingdom
  • overseas dependencies, or external territories of independent countries.

Census night address

Census night address is the physical location of the dwelling where a person was located on census night. For passengers on overnight trains and buses, the recommended census night address is the destination of the passenger.

Census night population count

The census night population count of New Zealand is a count of all people present in New Zealand on a given census night. This includes visitors from overseas who are counted on census night, but excludes residents who are temporarily overseas on census night.

The census night population count of an area in New Zealand (subnational count) is a count of all people present in that area on a given census night. This count includes visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand and visitors from overseas who are counted in that area on census night, but excludes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere in New Zealand or overseas on census night.

For example, the census night population count of Auckland region includes all people present and counted in Auckland region on census night. It includes residents present, visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand and visitors from overseas. It excludes people who usually live in Auckland region but were not in Auckland region on census night.

Census usually resident population count

The census usually resident population count of New Zealand is a count of all people who usually live in, and were present in New Zealand on census night.

Excluded are:

  • overseas visitors
  • New Zealand residents temporarily overseas.

The census usually resident population count of an area is a count of all people who usually live in that area and were present in New Zealand on census night.

Excluded are:

  • visitors from overseas
  • visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand
  • residents temporarily overseas on census night.

For example, a person who usually lives in Christchurch city and is visiting Wellington city on census night will be included in the census usually resident population count of Christchurch city.

Cigarette smoking behaviour

Cigarette smoking refers to the active smoking of one or more manufactured or hand-rolled tobacco cigarettes, from purchased or home-grown tobacco, per day, by a person aged 15 years and over.

The term ‘smoking’ refers to active smoking behaviour, that is, the intentional inhalation of tobacco smoke. Smoking does not refer to, or include, passive smoking (the unintentional inhalation of tobacco smoke).

Cigarette smoking does not include:

  • smoking of tobacco in cigars, pipes, and cigarillos
  • smoking of any other substances such as herbal cigarettes or marijuana
  • consumption of tobacco products by other means, such as chewing.

Questions about cigarette smoking behaviour are cyclical: they were first asked in the 1976 Census, and repeated in the 1981, 1996, and 2006 Censuses.

Civil union

A civil union is a legal relationship between two people as an alternative to marriage, with equivalent legal status. To be joined in a civil union, a couple must go through a formal ceremony and registration process. A civil union may be entered into by same-sex or opposite-sex couples. The Civil Union Act 2004 came into force in New Zealand on 26 April 2005, with the first ceremonies celebrated on 29 April 2005.

De facto relationship

A de facto relationship is between two people who usually reside together as a couple in a relationship in the nature of marriage or civil union, and who are not married to, or in a civil union with, each other.

Employed

A person was employed if they were part of the working-age population (15 years and over) and if, during the week ended 3 March 2013, they:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay or profit in the context of an employee/employer relationship or self-employment, or
  • worked without pay for one hour or more in work that contributed directly to the operation of a farm, business, or professional practice owned or operated by a relative, or
  • had a job but were not at work due to:
    • their illness or injury
    • personal or family responsibilities
    • bad weather or mechanical breakdown
    • direct involvement in an industrial dispute
    • being on leave or holiday.

Full-time employment means usually working 30 or more hours per week.

Part-time employment means usually working fewer than 30 hours per week.

Ethnicity/Ethnic group

Ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups a person identifies with or has a sense of belonging to. It is a measure of cultural affiliation (in contrast to race, ancestry, nationality, or citizenship). Ethnicity is self-perceived and a person can belong to more than one ethnic group.

An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following characteristics:

  • a common proper name
  • one or more elements of common culture that need not be specified, but may include religion, customs, or language
  • a unique community of interests, feelings, and actions
  • a shared sense of common origins or ancestry
  • a common geographic origin.

Ethnic group (grouped total responses)

 In ethnic group (grouped total responses) a person belonging to more than one ethnic group is counted once in each group. For example, at level one of this classification, a person of Samoan, Tongan, and German ethnicity would be counted once in the category of Pacific peoples and once as European.

See also ‘Total responses’ in General definitions.

Grouped total personal income

Grouped total personal income combines the total income from people to provide personal income information about small geographic areas (meshblocks, area units, or user-defined combinations of these) or subpopulations. The classification is:

  • $5,000 or less
  • $5,001–$10,000
  • $10,001–$20,000
  • $20,001–$30,000
  • $30,001–$50,000
  • $50,001 or more
  • not stated.

See also ‘Total personal income’ on this page; ‘Total household income’ in Definitions for households; ‘Meshblock’ and ‘Area unit’ in Geographic definitions; and ‘Income bands’ in General definitions.

Highest qualification

Highest qualification is derived for people aged 15 years and over, and combines highest secondary school qualification and post-school qualification to obtain a single highest qualification by category of attainment.

See also 'Qualification' on this page.

Highest secondary school qualification

This is the highest secondary school qualification gained by category of attainment, and is collected for people aged 15 years and over.

See also ‘Highest qualification’ and ‘Qualification’ on this page.

Hours worked in employment

Hours worked in employment is the total number of hours usually worked in employment each week by a person aged 15 years and over who:

  • worked one hour or more for pay, profit, or payment in kind, in a job, business, farm, or professional practice, or
  • worked one hour or more without pay in work that contributed directly to the operation of a business, farm, or professional practice operated by a relative, or
  • had a job or business they were temporarily absent from.

See also ‘Employed’ and ‘Labour force status’ on this page.

Imputation

Imputation is the replacement of missing information with what is expected to be true information when looking at other questionnaire responses. For the 2013 Census, four variables were imputed where a valid response was missing:

  • age
  • sex
  • usual residence
  • work and labour force status.

See also ‘Age imputation’, ‘Sex imputation’, ‘Usual residence imputation’, and ‘Work and labour force status imputation’ on this page.

Industry

Industry is the type of activity undertaken by the organisation, enterprise, business, or unit of economic activity that employs one or more people aged 15 years and over.

Internal migrants

Internal migrants include all people aged five years and over who are usually resident in New Zealand, who had changed their usual (permanent) address, and had moved between geographic areas in the period between 5 March 2008 and 5 March 2013. These people specified a different New Zealand residential address for both dates.

Internal migration

Internal migration is the change of people’s usual residence within the national boundaries of a country. It relates to people aged five years and over who are usually resident in New Zealand but at the time of the 2013 Census lived in a different subject geographic area than at 5 March 2008.

Excluded are people who did not specify a usual New Zealand address for 5 March 2013 or 5 March 2008, those who were classified as having ‘no fixed abode’, had an ‘overseas’ address, or a ‘New Zealand not further defined’ address.

Iwi

Iwi are the focal economic and political units of the Māori people of New Zealand. Iwi are based on the traditional Māori descent and kinship-based hierarchy of:

Waka (founding canoe)

        Iwi (tribe)

                Hapū (sub-tribe)

                        Whānau (family).

Job

A job is a set of tasks performed or designed to be performed by one person in employment (including self-employment) in return for payment or profit.

See also ‘Occupation’ on this page.

Job search methods

Job search methods are all the methods used by a person aged 15 years and over, to look for paid work in the four weeks before the census. They include:

  • looking at job advertisements
  • writing, phoning, sending email, or applying in person to an employer
  • contacting Work and Income New Zealand to look for a job
  • contacting friends or relatives for help in finding a job
  • contacting a careers adviser or a vocational guidance officer
  • other methods that might result in finding a job, for example:
    • contacting a private employment agency
    • placing advertisements to find a job
    • taking steps to set up a business.

See also ‘Actively seeking work' on this page.

Labour force participation rate

The labour force participation rate is the percentage of the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) who were either employed or unemployed. The calculation for labour force participation rate excludes people with a work and labour force status of ‘unidentifiable’.

Labour force status

Labour force status classifies people aged 15 years and over as 'employed' or 'unemployed', depending on whether they were in the labour force or not during the week ended 3 March 2013.

Language spoken

Language spoken provides information on which languages, and how many, a person can speak or use.

This includes New Zealand Sign Language.

Living arrangements

Living arrangements describe a person’s relationships to all other people (family or not) with whom they usually share a residence.

Main means of travel to work

Main means of travel to work is the method a person aged 15 years and over used to travel the longest distance to their place of employment on census day (for example, by bicycle, bus, walking, or jogging).

Māori descent

A person has Māori descent if they are the descendent of a person of the Māori race of New Zealand.

Māori ethnic group population

The Māori ethnic group population comprises those people who specified ‘Māori’ as either their sole ethnic group, or as one of several ethnic groups, in the 2013 Census.

Not in the labour force

Not in the labour force means any person of working age (15 years and over) who was neither employed nor unemployed. This category includes people for whom any of the following applied:

  • were retired
  • had personal or family responsibilities, such as unpaid housework and childcare
  • attended at least one educational institution
  • were permanently unable to work due to physical or mental disabilities
  • were temporarily unavailable for work in the week ended 3 March 2013
  • were not actively seeking work.

Number of children born alive

The number of children born alive is the number of children ever born alive to each female aged 15 years and over, who usually resides in New Zealand. Foetal deaths and stillborn children are not included. Stepchildren, adopted children, foster children, and wards of the State are also not included.

The question on number of children born alive is cyclical. It was first asked in the 1981 Census, and repeated in the 1996, 2006, and 2013 Censuses.

Occupation

An occupation is a set of jobs that require the performance of similar or identical sets of tasks by employed people aged 15 years and over.

See also ‘Job’ on this page.

Overseas visitor population

The overseas visitor population comprises people who were in New Zealand on census night but usually reside overseas.

Partnered

A partnered person is related to another person through:

  • marriage or civil union
  • a de facto relationship.

Civil unions and de facto relationships include both same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples.

See also ‘Civil union’ and ‘De facto relationship’ on this page.

Post-school qualification

Post-school qualification is the highest qualification a person aged 15 years and over has gained over and above any school qualifications. Included are qualifications awarded by educational and training institutions, as well as those gained from on-the-job training. Post-school qualification data is produced as category of attainment and by field of study.

See also ‘Qualification’ on this page.

Qualification

A qualification is a formally recognised award for educational or training attainment, where formal recognition means that the qualification is approved by one of the following (or their predecessors):

  • New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA)
  • Universities New Zealand – Te Pōkai Tara
  • Association of Polytechnics of New Zealand
  • Association of Colleges of Education in New Zealand
  • approval bodies that have been recognised by NZQA
  • the recognised overseas authority of a secondary school, profession, academic discipline, or trade.

A qualification is defined as requiring full-time equivalent study of three months or more. Study time is an estimate of the typical time it takes a learner to achieve the learning outcomes of the qualification. This includes direct contact time with teachers and trainers, as well as time spent in studying, assignments, and assessment.

See also 'Highest qualification’, ‘Highest secondary school qualification’, ‘Post-school qualification’, and ‘Study participation’ on this page.

Reference person

The reference person is the individual who completed the dwelling form on census night. Any relationship(s) information collected on the census dwelling form refers to the relationship an individual has to the reference person.

Relationship status

Relationship status is a person’s reported status with respect to the marriage laws or customs of the country. It is collected for any person aged 15 years and over, who usually resides in New Zealand.

There are two types of relationship status:

  • legally registered relationship status (previously known as legal marital status): a person's status with respect to registered marriage or registered civil union
  • partnership status in current relationship (previously known as social marital status): a person's status with respect to their current relationship – either partnered or non-partnered.

See also ‘Civil union’ and ‘Partnered’ on this page.

Relationship to reference person

Relationship to reference person indicates the kind of relationship each person in a defined group of people, family or not, has to the reference person (for example, father, boarder).

See also ‘Reference person’ on this page.

Religious affiliation

Religious affiliation is the self-identified association of a person with a religion, denomination, or sub-denominational religious group.

A religion is a set of beliefs and practices that usually involves acknowledgement of a divine or higher being or power, and that guides people’s conduct and morals.

A denomination is the church or religious sect that forms a subgroup of a religion. Denominations of a particular religion share the same principles but differ from each other in aspects such as the form of worship, or how they are governed.

Sector of ownership

The sector of ownership identifies the part of the economy that owns an organisation, enterprise, business, or unit of economic activity. Examples are central or local government, or private ownership.

Sex

Sex is the distinction between males and females based on the biological differences in sexual characteristics.

In responding to a question on sex, most people are able to classify themselves as either male or female. A person who has undergone sex reassignment is classified to that sex. A person who was of indeterminate sex and who has undergone sex assignment is classified to the assigned sex. Someone who is currently undergoing such procedures and living as the sex that they are taking steps towards is classified as that sex.

Sex imputation

Sex imputation supplies a sex where the response to the sex variable question is not a single response, or if a response is missing. If available, information such as the name of the person or their relationship to others in the household may be used to impute a value.

If these are not available, a value is assigned randomly, with 49 percent being imputed as male.

See also ‘Imputation’ on this page.

Sources of personal income

Sources of personal income identifies all the various sources from which a person aged 15 years and over received income in the 12 months ending 5 March 2013.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect information on money income. This is income that a person can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one’s labour, entrepreneurial skills, and assets; and from transfers received. So the concept of money income relies on identifying its sources.

Excluded are income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income, and contingent income (contingent income depends on the unknown outcome of a course of action, for example, to sue). Excluded also is money received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings, and receiving repayments of loan principal; and also tax credits and reimbursements of expenses.

See also ‘Sources of extended family income’ and ‘Sources of family income’ in Definitions for families; and ‘Sources of household income’ in Definitions for households.

Status in employment

Status in employment classifies employed people aged 15 years and over according to whether they were working for themselves or for other people in their main job.

Study participation

Study participation measures those attending, studying, or enrolled at school or anywhere else. It is grouped into full-time study (20 hours or more a week), part-time study (less than 20 hours a week), and those not studying.

Tenure holder

Tenure holder describes whether a person owns or partly owns the dwelling they usually live in.

See also ‘Tenure of household’ in Definitions for households.

Total personal income

Total personal income received is the before-tax income of a person in the 12 months ended 31 March 2013. The information is collected as income bands rather than in actual dollars.

Total personal income can be combined with other income information from the same family/household to provide:

  • combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • grouped combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • grouped total extended family income
  • grouped total family income
  • grouped total household income
  • grouped total personal income
  • total extended family income
  • total family income
  • total household income.

See also ‘Grouped total personal income’ on this page; and ‘Income bands’ in General definitions.

Unemployed

An unemployed person is in the working-age population (15 years and over) and, during the week ended 3 March 2013, was without a paid job but was available for work, and:

  • had actively sought work in the four weeks ended 3 March 2013, or
  • had a new job to start within the next four weeks.

If a person’s only job search method was to read job advertisements then they are not considered to be actively seeking work.

See also ‘Actively seeking work’ on this page.

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate gives the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force.

Unpaid activities

Unpaid activities covers activities performed in the four weeks before 5 March 2013, without payment, for people living either in the same household, or outside.

Usual residence

Usual residence is the address of the dwelling where a person considers themselves to usually reside.

It is recommended that these guidelines be followed in cases where usual residence is not self-defined.

  • Dependent children, who board elsewhere to attend primary or secondary school, and return to the home of their parent(s) or guardian(s) for the holidays, usually reside at the address of their parent(s) or guardian(s).
  • Tertiary students usually reside at the address where they live while studying. If they give up their usual residence in the holidays (eg terminate the lease on a flat or give up their hostel room) and return to the home of their parent(s)/guardian(s) during the holidays, their usual residence over that period would be the home of their parent(s)/guardian(s).
  • Children in shared care usually reside at the place where they spend more nights, or if they spend equal amounts of time at each residence, they usually reside at the place where they were on census night.
  • People who are in rest homes, hospitals, prisons, or other institutions usually reside where they consider themselves to live; this may include the institution.
  • A person whose home is on any boat, ship, or vessel permanently located in any harbour shall be deemed to usually reside at the wharf or landing place (or main wharf or landing place) of the harbour.
  • A person from another country who has lived the 12 months before 5 March 2013 in New Zealand, or has the intention of living in New Zealand for 12 months or more, usually resides at his or her address in New Zealand (as in external migration).
  • People who spend equal amounts of time residing at different addresses, and cannot decide which address is their usual residence, usually reside at the address they were at on census night.
  • If none of the above guidelines apply, the person usually resides at the address where they were on census night.

Usual residence five years ago

Usual residence five years ago is a person’s usual residence on 5 March 2008.

Usual residence five years ago indicator

The usual residence five years ago indicator is a person’s usual residence five years ago in relation to their usual residence on 5 March 2013. It provides information on the migration of people within New Zealand and of those who have arrived from overseas.

Usual residence five years ago summary

Usual residence five years ago summary provides high-level geographic information, such as the count of people that now live in a different usual residence in the same regional council area. The summary combines the ‘usual residence five years ago indicator’, and the ‘usual residence five years ago’, with the ‘usual residence’ on census night.

Usual residence imputation

Imputation is necessary if usual residence on census night is missing, so that everyone is assigned to a specific meshblock. This allows electoral populations to be calculated on the basis of usual residence. Any person initially coded to a level higher than the meshblock will have a meshblock imputed for usual residence.

See also ‘Imputation’ on this page; and ‘Meshblock’ in Geographic definitions.

Usual residence indicator

The usual residence indicator describes the relationship between a person’s usual residence and their census night address. The categories for usual residence indicator are:

  • same as census night address
  • elsewhere in New Zealand
  • overseas
  • no fixed abode.

Usual residents

Usual residents are people who usually live in the surveyed dwelling.

There are two types of usual residents: people who usually live in the dwelling and were present on census night, and those who usually live there but were absent at census night (absentees).

There are two types of absentees: those who were elsewhere in New Zealand on census night and those who were overseas then.

Usual residents in non-private occupied dwellings

Usual residents in non-private occupied dwellings are people who gave a non-private dwelling as their usual residence on census night.

See also ‘Occupied non-private dwelling’ in Definitions for dwellings.

Usual residents in occupied dwellings

Usual residents in occupied dwellings are people who gave a private or non-private occupied dwelling as their usual residence on census night, or people who were recorded as absent from a private occupied dwelling.

Usual residents in private dwellings

Usual residents in private dwellings are people who were surveyed at home in a private occupied dwelling on census night or who were recorded as absent from a private occupied dwelling.

Usually resident population

See ‘Census usually resident population count’ on this page.

Visitor

A visitor to a dwelling is a person who was present in a dwelling on census night but does not usually reside there.

See also ‘Dwelling’ in Definitions for dwellings.

Work and labour force status

Work and labour force status classifies a person aged 15 years and over by their inclusion in or exclusion from the labour force. For an employed person, it distinguishes between full-time employment (30 hours or more per week) or part-time employment (fewer than 30 hours per week). A person who was not employed is classified as either ‘unemployed’ or ‘not in the labour force’.

See also ‘Employed’ on this page.

Note that the definitions of ‘employed’, ‘unemployed’, and ‘not in the labour force’ are based on those of the International Labor Organization, as set down at the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 1982.

Work and labour force status imputation

Work and labour force status imputation supplies a value for work and labour force status of a person, where this cannot be derived from the information they supplied. This imputation uses whatever labour force information has been given, and various other responses from a person (such as age and income). A work and labour force status is then imputed to match the known work and labour force status of a similar person.

See also ‘Imputation’ on this page.

Working-age population

The working-age population comprises the usually resident population of New Zealand who are aged 15 years and over on census night.

Workplace

A workplace is a person’s place of paid employment, except for people working unpaid in a family business (in which case it is the place where that unpaid work was done).

Workplace address

Workplace address is the physical location of a workplace; distinguishing details can include the building name; street number, name and type; suburb or rural locality; and city, town, or district.

See also ‘Meshblock’ in Geographic definitions.

Year of arrival in New Zealand

Year of arrival in New Zealand is the year a person born overseas first arrived in New Zealand as a permanent or long-term resident.

Years at usual residence

Years at usual residence is the number of completed years up to census night that a person has lived at their usual residence. Short-term absence may be ignored, but long-term absence of more than 12 months is excluded.

Years since arrival in New Zealand

Years since arrival in New Zealand is the number of completed years up to census night, since a person born overseas first arrived to live in New Zealand as a permanent or long-term resident. This includes any intervening absences, whether temporary or long term.

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