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Usual residence five years ago

Definition

Usual residence five years ago is a person’s usual residence on 5 March 2008.

Usual residence five years ago indicator – a person’s usual residence five years ago in relation to their usual residence on 5 March 2013. It provides information on the migration of people within New Zealand and of those who have arrived from overseas.

Usual residence five years ago summary – provides high-level geographic information, such as the count of people that now live in a different usual residence in the same regional council area. The summary combines the ‘Usual residence five years ago indicator’, and the ‘Usual residence five years ago’, with the ‘Usual residence’ on census night.

Related variables

  • Usual residence
  • Usual residence indicator – describes the relationship between a person’s usual residence and their census night address

For more information on these variables refer to the 2013 Census data dictionary.

Where the data comes from

Question 7 on the individual form.

How this data is classified

Usual residence five years ago

The classification for usual residence five years ago uses area units as the smallest spatial unit. This is because a significant number of respondents do not supply enough information to enable an address to be accurately coded to meshblock level.

The usual residence five years ago classification consists of a combination of classifications that are ordinarily independently of each other. They are 'Area unit', 'Territorial authority', 'Regional council', and 'Country' classifications. There is a hierarchic relationship between the New Zealand geographic classifications of area unit, territorial authority and regional council. For example, area units aggregate to form both territorial authorities and regional councils.

When sufficient information is not provided to code an individual's usual residence five years ago at area unit level, but enough information is provided for another area type, it may be coded at a higher geographic level eg territorial authority or regional council. For a respondent who lived outside New Zealand five years ago, their usual resident five years ago will be coded with a country code.

Usual residence five years ago is a six-digit code classification.

Area unit codes (6 digits)

Territorial authority codes (3 digits), prefixed by '999'

Regional council codes (2 digits) prefixed by '9999'

Country codes (4 digits) prefixed by '99'

999977 Response unidentifiable

999995 Not born five years ago

999996 No fixed abode

999997 Country not stated

999998 New Zealand not further defined

999999 Not stated

Usual residence five years ago indicator

01 Same as usual residence

02 Elsewhere in New Zealand

03 Not born five years ago

04 Overseas

05 No fixed abode five years ago

44 Don't know

55 Refused to answer

77 Response unidentifiable

88 Response outside scope

98 New Zealand not further defined

99 Not stated

Usual residence five years ago summary

01 Same usual residence as five years ago

02 Same territorial authority

03 Same regional council, different territorial authority / territorial authority unknown

04 Different regional council, same island

05 Different regional council, different island

06 Area outside regional council / territorial authority stated but regional council not further defined / area outside territorial authority

07 No fixed abode five years ago

08 Overseas five years ago

09 Not born five years ago

97 Response unidentifiable

98 New Zealand not further defined

99 Not stated

For further information about this classification, refer to the:

For background information on classifications and standards, refer to the Classifications and related statistical standards page.

Subject population

The subject populations for this variable are the census night population, and the census usually resident population.

The census night population is a subject population as this question applies to all people in New Zealand on census night. However, data on usual residence five years ago is output for the census usually resident population.

The subject population is the people, families, households, or dwellings to whom the variable applies.

Non-response and data that could not be classified

Non-response

'Non-response' is when an individual gives no response at all to a census question that was relevant to them. The non-response rate is the percentage of the subject population that was coded to ‘Not stated’.

  • Non-response rate for 2013: 3.5 percent for the usually resident population.
  • Non-response rate for 2006: 2.9 percent for the usually resident population.

In 2001 the 'not stated' category was not used. People who did not respond to this question were classified as 'New Zealand not further defined'. This category also included respondents who gave insufficient information to allow coding to area unit, territorial authority, or regional council. Of the usually resident population, 5.5 percent were classified as 'New Zealand not further defined'.

New Zealand not further defined rate for 2013 was 5.3 percent, of which 4.5 percent were from substitute records.

For more information on non-response and substitute records, refer to the 2013 Census data user guide.

How this data is used

Data from this variable is used:

  • by central government agencies, and regional and local authorities for planning and development purposes
  • to contribute to the quality of population estimates and projections
  • for a general understanding of migration dynamics.

Data quality processes

All census data was checked thoroughly during processing and evaluation, to ensure that it met quality standards and is suitable for use. These quality checks included edits.

All data must meet minimum quality standards to make it suitable for use.

Quality level

quality level is assigned to all census variables: foremost, defining, or supplementary.

Usual residence five years ago is a defining variable. Defining variables cover key subject populations that are important for policy development, evaluation, or monitoring. These variables are given second priority in terms of quality, time, and resources across all phases of a census.

Mode of collection impacts – online forms compared with paper forms

The online forms had built-in editing functionality that directed respondents to the appropriate questions and ensured that their responses were valid. As a result of this, data from online forms may be of higher overall quality than data from paper forms. The significance of this will depend on the particular type of analysis being done. There will always be a mode effect but this cannot be measured. Statistics NZ design and test to minimise the effects of mode for all questions.

There were differences between how the forms were completed online and on paper for this variable:

  • The online form allowed only one response to be selected for the usual residence five years ago question. If a further response was selected, the response given previously disappeared. Multiple responses to this question were possible when forms were completed on paper.
  • On the online form, the system opened up a text field response box if the respondent selected 'At another address' when answering this question.

Quality assessment of data and data quality issues for this variable

Overall quality assessment

High: fit for use – with minor data quality issues only. 2013 Census variable quality rating scale gives more detail.

Issues to note

  • Non-response rate for 2013: 3.5 percent for the usually resident population.

For more information on non-response and substitute records, refer to the 2013 Census data user guide.

Comparing this data with previous census data

The 2013 ’Usual residence five years ago’ data is fully comparable with the 2006 Census data. Changes in the data over this time period can be interpreted as real changes because there have been no changes in the way the data has been collected, defined, and classified.

The 2013 ’Usual residence five years ago’ data is highly comparable with the 2001 Census data. There may be a small component of change over time that is due to minor changes in the questionnaire, collection, definition, or classification of the data. In 2001, the usual residence five years ago question included the response 'At the address you gave in question five'. In 2013, the 'You' was replaced with 'I'.

The 2013 ’Usual residence five years ago indicator’ data is broadly comparable with 2006 and 2001. Changes in the data over this time period may be partly due to changes in the collection, definition, or classification of the data rather than to real change. There was also a difference in the way substitutes were treated between 2006 and 2013. Substitute individual forms are individual forms created by Statistics NZ where there is sufficient evidence that a person exists but Statistics NZ has no corresponding individual form. Substitute forms are only created for the census usually resident population. In 2006 the substitutes were coded to ‘Elsewhere in New Zealand’ (apart from those imputed to be aged zero to four years). There were approximately 123,800 people substituted in this category. In 2013, substitutes were coded to the 'New Zealand not further defined' category. There were approximately 189,000 people substituted in this category. This change in the treatment of substitutes makes a small difference when comparing population mobility for 2013 with 2006. Residual categories have also been treated slightly differently in 2001, 1996 and 1991, which reduces the consistency of intercensal comparisons.

The usual residence five years ago summary variable was not available in 2006 or 2001.

Comparing this data with data from other sources

Census is the only information source that provides comprehensive information for small areas and small populations. However alternative sources of information about this subject are available:

Data from these alternative sources may show differences from census data for several reasons. These could be due to differences in scope, coverage, non-response rates, data being collected at different periods of time, alternative sources being sample surveys and as such subject to sampling errors, or differences in question wordings and method of delivery (self-administered versus interviewer-administered). Data users are advised to familiarise themselves with the strengths and limitations of individual data sources before comparing with census data.

Further information about this data

All percentages in census publications have been calculated using 'Total stated' as the denominator.

When using this data, be aware of the following:

  • Area unit level is the most detailed geographic level at which data on usual residence five years ago is available.
  • There are some inconsistencies between usual residence five years ago when cross-tabulated with 'Years since arrival in New Zealand' and 'Years at usual residence'. The main cause of these inconsistencies is respondent error.

Contact our Information Centre for further information about using this variable.

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