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Personal definitions

Absentee

An absentee is a person who is identified on the census dwelling form as usually living in a particular dwelling but who did not complete a census individual form at that dwelling because they were elsewhere in New Zealand or overseas at the time of the census. A person listed as an absentee on a census dwelling form may complete a census individual form elsewhere in New Zealand.

Included as absentees in the census are children away at boarding school, and people away on business, on holiday, in hospital and so on. Long-term hospital patients and university and other tertiary students who live away from the dwelling for most of the year
are excluded.

Activities

The 2006 Census activities question is used to gather and provide information on the level of unpaid work that is carried out in New Zealand households.

Refer also to ‘unpaid work’.

Age

Age is the length of time a person has been alive, measured in complete, elapsed years. It is measured as the difference between 'date of birth' and '7 March 2006'.

Age imputation

Age imputation supplies an age in years where the value for the age variable is missing. Age will be missing if an age cannot be calculated from the response to the date of birth question.

Age is imputed using various other responses from the individual, for example whether the respondent is legally married, and the known distribution of ages in the population.

Refer also to ‘imputation’.

Availability for work

Availability for work refers to whether the respondent would have started a paid job in the week ended 5 March 2006, had a job been available. Availability for work is one of the variables that contributes to the derivation of labour force status. This question only applied to those aged 15 years and over who were not employed.

Birthplace

Birthplace refers to the country where the respondent was born. A country is the current name, either short or official, of a country, dependency or other area of particular geopolitical interest. The term country is defined to include:

  • independent countries recognised by the New Zealand Government
  • units that are recognised geographic areas
  • administrative subdivisions of the United Kingdom, and
  • overseas dependencies, and external territories of independent countries.

Census night address

Census night address is the meshblock of the dwelling where a respondent is located on census night. For passengers on overnight trains and buses, it is recommended that census night address be the destination of the passenger.

Refer also to 'meshblock’.

Census night population count

The census night population count of New Zealand is all people counted in New Zealand on census night. This count includes visitors from overseas who are counted on census night, but excludes New Zealand residents who are temporarily overseas on census night.

The census night population count includes all people in New Zealand on census night, 7 March 2006, who were:

  • on New Zealand soil
  • on a vessel in New Zealand waters, or
  • on a passage between New Zealand ports.

Overseas residents and other people in diplomatic residences in New Zealand, including housekeeping staff, uniformed military personnel or members of diplomats' families are included in the census night population count. Also included are foreign military personnel and their families located in New Zealand on census night (including foreign warships in New Zealand territorial waters on census night).

New Zealand military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families located outside New Zealand on census night are not included.

At a subnational level, the census night population count refers to all people who are in that place on census night. The Auckland census night population count, for example, includes overseas visitors and New Zealand residents who are temporarily visiting Auckland, but excludes people who usually live in Auckland but are elsewhere on census night. This differs from the census usually resident population count, which refers to people who usually live in Auckland.

Census usually resident population count

The census usually resident population count of New Zealand is all people counted in New Zealand on census night, excluding overseas visitors and New Zealand residents temporarily overseas.

The census usually resident population count of an area in New Zealand is a count of all people who usually live in that area and are present in New Zealand on census night. This count excludes visitors from overseas, visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand, and residents temporarily overseas on census night.

For example, a person who usually lives in Christchurch city but was in Wellington city on census night will be included in the census usually resident population count of Christchurch city and also will be included in the census night population count of Wellington city. They will be excluded from the census night population count of Christchurch city and from the census usually resident population count of Wellington city.

Cigarette smoking behaviour

Cigarette smoking refers to the active smoking of one or more manufactured or hand-rolled tobacco cigarettes, from purchased or home-grown tobacco, per day, by people aged 15 years and over.

The term 'smoking' refers to active smoking behaviour, that is, the intentional inhalation of tobacco smoke. Smoking does not refer to or include passive smoking (the unintentional inhalation of tobacco smoke).

Cigarette smoking does not include:

  • the smoking of tobacco in cigars, pipes and cigarillos
  • the smoking of any other substances, herbal cigarettes or marijuana, for example, or
  • the consumption of tobacco products by other means, such as chewing.

Cigarette smoking behaviour is a cyclical topic that was first asked about in the 1976 Census. It was repeated in the 1981, 1996 and 2006 Censuses.

Civil union status

A civil union is a legal relationship recognised in law in New Zealand. The Civil Union Act 2004 came into force on 26 April 2005, with the first ceremonies celebrated on 29 April 2005. Civil unions are an alternative to marriage and have an equivalent legal status. To be joined in a civil union, a couple must have gone through a formal ceremony and registration process. A civil union may be entered into by same-sex or opposite-sex couples.

Employed

A person is employed if they were in the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) and during the week ended 5 March 2006:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay or profit in the context of an employee/employer relationship or self-employment
  • worked without pay for one hour or more in work that contributed directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned or operated by a relative
    had a job but were not at work due to:
    • their illness or injury
    • personal or family responsibilities
    • bad weather or mechanical breakdown
    • direct involvement in an industrial dispute
    • being on leave or holiday.

Full time: People who are employed full time usually work 30 or more hours per week.

Part time: People who are employed part time usually work fewer than 30 hours per week.

Ethnicity/Ethnic group

Ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following characteristics:

  • a common proper name
  • one or more elements of common culture that need not be specified, but may include religion, customs, or language
  • unique community of interests, feelings and actions
  • a shared sense of common origins or ancestry, and
  • a common geographic origin.

Grouped total personal income

The standard 15-category total person income classification cannot be used for outputting data about small geographic areas (meshblocks, area units or user-defined combinations of these) in the 2006 Census. Instead, grouped income categories must be used for these areas. The grouped total personal income classification is:

  • $5,000 or less
  • $5,001–$10,000
  • $10,001–$20,000
  • $20,001–$30,000
  • $30,001–$50,000
  • $50,001 or more
  • not stated.

Refer also to 'meshblock', 'area unit' and 'Total personal income'.

Highest qualification

Highest qualification is derived for people aged 15 years and over, and combines highest secondary school qualification and post-school qualification to derive a single highest qualification by category of attainment.

Refer also to 'qualification'.

Highest secondary school qualification

This is the highest secondary school qualification gained by category of attainment, and is collected for people aged 15 years and over.

Refer also to 'qualification'.

Hours worked in employment

Hours worked in employment is the total number of hours usually worked in employment per week by all people aged 15 years and over who, at the time of the census:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit or payment in kind, in a job, business, farm or professional practice, or
  • worked without pay for one hour or more in work that contributed directly to the operation of a business, farm or professional practice operated by a relative, or
  • had a job or business they were temporarily absent from.

Imputation

Imputation involves inserting a value when a respondent has not provided a valid response. For the 2006 Census, four variables were imputed where there was no valid response:

  • age
  • sex
  • usual residence, and
  • work and labour force status.

Refer also to ‘age imputation’, 'sex imputation’, ‘usual residence imputation’ and ‘work and labour force imputation’.

Industry

Industry is the type of activity undertaken by the organisation, enterprise, business, or unit of economic activity within which a person aged 15 years and over is employed.

Internal migrants

This term refers to all people usually resident in New Zealand (aged five years and over) who had changed their usual (permanent) address and had moved between subject geographic areas during the intercensal period, 6 March 2001 to 7 March 2006. These people were required to have specified a New Zealand residential address for both of these dates.

Internal migration

Internal migration is the movement of population within the national boundaries of a country, resulting from changes of usual residence.

Internal migration relates to people usually resident in New Zealand (aged five years and over) at the time of the 2006 Census who were not living in the same subject geographic area five years prior to the census. Excluded are people who did not specify a usual New Zealand address for census night 2006 or five years earlier (2001) and were classified as having 'no fixed abode', or had an 'overseas' or 'New Zealand not further defined' address.

Iwi

The concept of iwi has changed over time. Today it is the focal economic and political unit of the traditional Māori descent and kinship, based hierarchy of:

Waka (founding canoe)
|
Iwi (tribe)
|
Hapū (sub-tribe)
|
Whānau (family).

 

Job search methods

Job search methods determine all the ways the respondent, aged 15 years and over, looked for paid work in the four weeks prior to the census, including:

  • looked at job advertisements
  • wrote, phoned or applied in person to an employer
  • contacted Work and Income to look for a job
  • contacted friends or relatives for help in finding a job
  • contacted career advisers or vocational guidance officers
  • other job search methods.

Labour force

The labour force consists of members of the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) who, during the week ended 5 March 2006, were classified as 'employed' or 'unemployed'.

Refer also to 'employed' and 'unemployed'.

Labour force participation rate

The percentage of the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) who were either employed or unemployed. The calculation for labour force participation rate excludes people with a work and labour force status of 'unidentifiable'.

Language spoken

This variable provides information on whether a person can speak and understand spoken or sign language(s).

Living arrangements

Living arrangements is a variable that describes the familial and non-familial relationships of a person to all of the other people with whom they usually reside.

Main means of travel to work

Main means of travel to work is the method by which the respondent, aged 15 years and over, travelled the longest distance to their main employment on 7 March 2006, for example, by bicycle, bus, walking or jogging.

Māori descent

A person has Māori descent if they are of the Māori race of New Zealand. This includes any descendant of such a person.

Māori ethnic group population

Those people who specified 'Māori' as either their sole ethnic group or as one of several ethnic groups in the 2006 Census of Population and Dwellings.

Marital status

Marital status is a person’s reported status with respect to the marriage laws or customs of the country. It applies to people aged 15 years and over.

There are two types of marital status: legal marital status and social marital status. Legal marital status is a person’s status with respect to registered marriage or civil union. Social marital status is a person’s reported status with respect to consensual union. People who are in a consensual union are partnered; people who are not in a consensual union are non-partnered.

Refer also to 'consensual union' and 'civil union status'.

Not in the labour force

Any person in the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) who is neither employed nor unemployed. For example, this category includes:

  • retired people
  • people with personal or family responsibilities, such as unpaid housework and childcare
  • people attending educational institutions
  • people permanently unable to work due to physical or mental disabilities
  • people who were temporarily unavailable for work in the survey reference week
  • people who are not actively seeking work.

Number of children born alive

The number of children ever born alive to each female aged 15 years and over, who usually resides in New Zealand. Foetal deaths and stillborn children are not included. Stepchildren, adopted children, foster children and wards of the State are also not included.

‘Number of children born alive’ is a cyclical topic, which was first asked about in the 1981 Census and repeated in the 1996 and 2006 Censuses.

Occupation

An occupation is defined as a set of jobs that require the performance of similar or identical tasks, and is collected for employed people aged 15 years and over.

A job is a set of tasks performed or designed to be performed by one person for an employer (including self-employment) in return for payment or profit.

Overseas visitor population

The overseas visitor population is defined as those people in New Zealand on census night whose usual residence is overseas.

Post-school qualification

Post-school qualification is the highest qualification gained over and above any school qualifications and is collected for people aged 15 years and over. Included are qualifications awarded by training and educational institutions, as well as those gained from on-the-job training. Post-school qualifications data is produced by category of attainment and by field of study.

Refer also to 'qualification'.

Qualification

A qualification is a formally recognised award for attainment resulting from a full-time (20 hours per week) learning course of at least three months, or from part-time study that, when completed, is equivalent to three months full time, or from on-the-job training.

Formal recognition means that the qualification is:

  • awarded by a New Zealand secondary school or institution as defined by the Education Act, or
  • awarded under the auspices of the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA), that is, by a registered qualifications provider, or
  • awarded by a publicly recognised New Zealand authority of a profession, academic discipline or trade, or
  • awarded by a New Zealand recognised overseas authority of a profession, academic discipline or trade.

Category of attainment is an indication of the amount and type of learning required to gain a qualification.

The amount of learning is the total learning time usually necessary to obtain a qualification. Included are any previous learning or educational attainment required for admission to the educational course leading to the qualification and the amount of learning time necessary to complete the qualification.

The type of learning is the blend of theoretical knowledge and understanding and the attainment of practical skills. For example, academic qualifications have greater theoretical content than vocational qualifications; vocational qualifications have greater applied skills content than academic qualifications.

Refer also to 'highest qualification', 'highest secondary school qualification' and 'post-school qualification'.

Reference person

The reference person is the individual who completed the dwelling form on census night. They are therefore the one person whose relationship(s) to all the other people in a group of people is collected.

Relationship to reference person

Relationship to reference person is a variable that describes the familial and non-familial relationships of each person in a defined group of people to one person (the reference person).

Refer also to 'reference person'.

Religious affiliation

Religious affiliation is the self-identified association of a person with a religion, denomination or sub-denominational religious group.

A denomination is the church or religious sect that forms a subgroup of a religion. Denominations of a particular religion share the same principles but differ from each other in aspects, such as the form of worship used and the way in which they are governed.

Sector of ownership

The sector of ownership variable identifies the sector of the economy that owns an organisation or business.

The classification criteria of sector of ownership are based on partitioning of the economy into institutional sectors. Statistical units are categorised according to who they are owned by, and their function, control and behaviour. The sector of ownership classification has four categories:

  • central government
  • local government
  • private
  • not stated.

Seeking work

To be actively seeking work, a person must use job search methods other than reading job advertisements. Examples of actively seeking work are: writing, phoning, contacting using electronic mail or applying in person to an employer; contacting a private employment agency; contacting Work and Income about a job; placing an advertisement to find a job; contacting friends or relatives about a job; taking steps to set up their own business; or contacting a careers advisor or vocational guidance officer. Seeking work is one of the variables that contributes to the derivation of the work and labour force status. This question applies only to those aged 15 years and over who were not employed at the time of the census.

Sex

Sex is the distinction between males and females based on the biological differences in sexual characteristics.

Sex imputation

Sex imputation supplies a value of male or female where the response for the sex variable is missing.

If they are available, the name of the person, or their relationship to others in the household, may be used to impute a value. If these are not available, a value is assigned randomly, with 49 percent being imputed as male.

Refer also to ‘imputation’.

Sources of personal income

This variable identifies the various sources from which an individual aged 15 years and over received their total personal income in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect information on money income. This is income that the individual respondent can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills and assets, and transfers received. The concept of money income therefore relies on identifying the sources from which money income is derived.

Excluded are income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income and contingent income. Contingent income is that dependent on the unknown income of a course of action, for example, to sue. Moneys received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded. Tax credits and reimbursements of expenses are also excluded.

Status in employment

Status in employment classifies employed people aged 15 years and over according to whether they are working for themselves or for other people.

The two main criteria underlying the classification of status in employment are:

  • Economic risk – a worker who assumes some or all of the 'risk' in operating an economic entity is likely to be either an employer or a self-employed person. If this is not the case, a worker is likely to be an employee.
  • Economic control – who decides how and when an employed person's work is to be performed. For example, if a particular worker decides for himself or herself, they are probably either self-employed or an employer, whereas if some other person makes these decisions, a worker is more likely to be an employee.

Study participation

Study participation measures those attending, studying or enrolled at school or anywhere else. It is grouped into: full-time study (20 hours or more a week), part-time study (less than 20 hours a week), and those not studying.

Tenure holder

Tenure holder measures whether an individual owns or partly owns the dwelling they usually live in.

Refer also to 'tenure of household'.

Total personal income

Information on total personal income received is collected from individuals in the 2006 Census. It represents the before-tax income for the respondent in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006. To overcome collection difficulties, total personal income is collected as an income range rather than an actual dollar income.

Total personal income is aggregated to form a number of other income outputs including:

  • grouped total personal income
  • total household income
  • grouped total household income
  • total family income
  • grouped total family income
  • combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • grouped combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • total extended family income
  • grouped total extended family income.

Refer also to 'Grouped total personal income'.

Unemployed

All people in the working-age population (people aged 15 years and over) who, during the week ended 5 March 2006, were without a paid job, were available for work and: had actively sought work in the past four weeks (ended 5 March 2006); or had a new job to start within the next four weeks.

A person whose only job search method in the four weeks prior to census had been to look at job advertisements in the newspapers, is not considered to be actively seeking work.

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Unpaid work

Unpaid work covers unpaid activities performed in the four weeks prior to census that are either:

  • for people living in the same household as the respondent, or
  • for people outside the respondent's household (for which the performance of those activities is not paid).

Usual residence

Usual residence is the meshblock of the dwelling where a person considers himself or herself to usually reside, except in the following cases:

  • People who board at another residence to attend primary or secondary school, and return to the home of their parent(s) or guardian(s) for the holidays, usually reside at the address of their parent(s) or guardian(s). Post-secondary students usually reside at the address where they live while studying.
  • Children in joint custody usually reside at the place where they spend more nights, or if they spend equal amounts of time at each residence, they usually reside at the place where they are at the time of the census.
  • People who are in rest homes, hospitals, prisons or other institutions usually reside where they consider themselves to live, and this may include the institution.
  • A person whose home is on any ship, boat or vessel permanently located in any harbour shall be deemed to usually reside at the wharf or landing place (or main wharf or landing place) of the harbour.
  • A person from another country who has lived, or intends to live, in New Zealand for 12 months or more usually resides at his or her address in New Zealand (for consistency with other population statistics, for example external migration).
  • People who spend equal amounts of time residing at different addresses, and cannot decide which address is their usual residence, usually reside at the address they are at on census night.
  • If none of the above guidelines apply, the person usually resides at the address he or she is surveyed at.

The definition of usual residence does not include a time criterion and instead uses the approach of self-definition. This is because a time criterion can lead to households and families being classified on an arbitrary basis. Furthermore, most people know where they usually live (reside) and as such this involves feelings of belonging, association and participation in and with a household.

Usual residence five years ago

Usual residence five years ago is the usual residence of a respondent on 6 March 2001.

Usual residence five years ago indicator

The usual residence five years ago indicator provides general information on where people usually resided five years ago, in relation to their present usual residence. A question on usual residence five years ago, in conjunction with a question on usual residence, provides information on the migration of people within New Zealand and from overseas to New Zealand.

Usual residence five years ago summary

This is a derived variable that summarises the respondent's usual residence five years ago. It combines the usual residence five years ago indicator (high-level information on where the respondent usually resided five years ago: same as usual residence; elsewhere in New Zealand; not born five years ago; overseas; or no fixed abode five years ago) with the respondent's usual residence five years ago and the respondent's usual residence, to provide high-level geographic information. For example, the count of people that now live in a different usual residence in the same regional council area.

Usual residence imputation

The usual residence imputation supplies a value for the usual residence meshblock, where a meshblock cannot be coded from the address information supplied by the respondent.

The usual residence meshblock imputation uses whatever level of geographic information that has been given, and various other responses from the individual. A usual residence meshblock is then imputed based on the distribution of known usual residence meshblocks for similar people.

Refer also to ‘imputation’ and ‘meshblock’.

Usual residence indicator

The usual residence indicator describes the relationship between a respondent's usual residence and their census night address. The standard output categories for usual residence indicator are:

  • same as census night address
  • elsewhere in New Zealand
  • overseas
  • no fixed abode.

Usual resident

Usual residents are people who usually live in the surveyed dwelling.

There are two types of usual residents: people who usually live in the dwelling and are present at the time of the census, and people who usually live in the dwelling but are absent at the time of the census (absentees).

There are two types of absentees: those who are elsewhere in New Zealand during the census and those who are overseas during the census.

Usual residents in non-private occupied dwellings

Usual residents in non-private occupied dwellings are people who were enumerated in a non-private occupied dwelling on census night and gave this non-private dwelling as their usual residence.

Refer also to ‘occupied non-private dwelling’.

Usual residents in occupied dwellings

Usual residents in occupied dwellings are people who were enumerated in private and non-private occupied dwellings on census night and gave this dwelling as being their usual residence, or people who were recorded as absent from a private occupied dwelling.

Usual residents in private dwellings

Usual residents in private dwellings are people who were enumerated at home in a private occupied dwelling on census night or who were recorded as absent from a private dwelling.

Usually resident population

Refer also to 'census usually resident population count'.

Visitor

A visitor to a dwelling is a person who is present in a dwelling at the time of the census but does not usually reside in that dwelling.

Refer also to ‘dwelling’.

Work and labour force imputation

Work and labour force status imputation supplies a value for work and labour force status, where this cannot be derived from the labour force information supplied by the respondent.

The work and labour force status imputation uses whatever labour force information has been given, and various other responses from the individual (for example, age and income). A work and labour force status is then imputed to equal the known work and labour force status of a similar person.

Refer also to ‘imputation’.

Work and labour force status

Work and labour force status classifies people aged 15 years and over according to their inclusion or exclusion from the labour force. For people who are employed, it distinguishes whether they are employed full time (30 hours or more per week) or part time (fewer than 30 hours per week). For people who are not employed, it classifies them as either 'unemployed' or 'not in the labour force'.

The definitions of 'employed', 'unemployed' and 'not in the labour force' are based on those of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), as set down at the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 1982.

Working-age population

The usually resident population of New Zealand who are aged 15 years and over at the time of the census.

Workplace

A workplace is a respondent’s place of employment.

Workplace address

Workplace address is the meshblock of the respondent's workplace.

Refer also to 'meshblock’.

Year of arrival in New Zealand

Year of arrival in New Zealand is the year that a respondent who was born outside of New Zealand first arrived in New Zealand as a permanent or long-term resident.

Years at usual residence

Years at usual residence is the length of time up to the 2006 Census, expressed in completed elapsed years (including short-term absences, but excluding long-term absences), that a respondent has lived at their usual residence.

Years since arrival in New Zealand

The length of time up to census day in completed elapsed years (including any intervening absences, whether temporary or long term) since a respondent who was born outside of New Zealand,first arrived to live in New Zealand as a permanent or long-term resident.

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