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S

Same-sex partners

Two people of the same sex who are in a civil union or consensual union.

Secondary urban area

Secondary urban areas were established at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. They have a population between 10,000 and 29,999 and are centred on the larger regional centres.

Refer also to 'urban area'.

Sector of landlord

Sector of landlord is the institutional unit to which the owners of rented or leased private dwellings belong. Landlord refers to the type of organisation or person from whom households rent or lease private occupied dwellings.

Sector of ownership

The sector of ownership variable identifies the sector of the economy that owns an organisation or business.

The classification criteria of sector of ownership are based on partitioning of the economy into institutional sectors. Statistical units are categorised according to who they are owned by, and their function, control and behaviour. The sector of ownership classification has four categories:

  • central government
  • local government
  • private
  • not stated.

Seeking work

To be actively seeking work, a person must use job search methods other than reading job advertisements. Examples of actively seeking work are: writing, phoning, contacting using electronic mail or applying in person to an employer; contacting a private employment agency; contacting Work and Income about a job; placing an advertisement to find a job; contacting friends or relatives about a job; taking steps to set up their own business; or contacting a careers advisor or vocational guidance officer. Seeking work is one of the variables that contributes to the derivation of the work and labour force status. This question applies only to those aged 15 years and over who were not employed at the time of the census.

Sex

Sex is the distinction between males and females based on the biological differences in sexual characteristics.

Sex imputation

Sex imputation supplies a value of male or female where the response for the sex variable is missing.

If they are available, the name of the person, or their relationship to others in the household, may be used to impute a value. If these are not available, a value is assigned randomly, with 49 percent being imputed as male.

Refer also to ‘imputation’.

Single and combination

Several census variables allow people to provide more than one response to the question. In single and combination output tables there are categories for people who reported only one response, and combination categories for people who reported more than one response. People are counted just once in the category that applies to them, according to the category or combination of categories they have reported. For example, for outputs of ethnic group, categories may include European/Māori, or Māori/Pacific peoples. This means that the total population will be equal to the usual subject population for that variable, as individuals are counted once only.

Variables that are usually output on the basis of single and combination categories are:

  • ethnic group
  • language spoken
  • fuel type used to heat dwellings.

Sole parent

A sole parent is the parent in a one-parent family.

For the purposes of the census, children in joint custody usually reside at the place where they spend more nights, or if they spend equal amounts of time at each residence, they usually reside at the place where they are at the time of the census.

Some children classified as being in one-parent families have two active parents in different households.

Sources of extended family income

This variable identifies the various sources from which an extended family received their total extended family income in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect money income. This is income that the individual respondent can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills and assets, and transfers received. The concept of money income therefore relies on identifying the sources from which money income is derived.

Excluded are income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income and contingent income. Contingent income is that which depends on the unknown outcome of a course of action, for example to sue. Moneys received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded. Tax credits and reimbursements of expenses are also excluded.

Sources of family income

This variable identifies the various sources that a family received their total family income from in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect money income. This is income that the individual respondent can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills and assets, and transfers received. The concept of money income therefore relies on identifying the sources from which money income is derived.

Excluded are income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income and contingent income. Contingent income is that dependent on the unknown outcome of a course of action, for example to sue. Moneys received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded. Tax credits and reimbursements of expenses are also excluded.

Sources of household income

This variable identifies the various sources from which a household received their total household income in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect money income. This is income that the individual respondent can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills and assets, and transfers received. The concept of money income therefore relies on identifying the sources from which money income is derived.

Excluded is income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income and contingent income. Contingent income is that which depends on the unknown outcome of a course of action, for example to sue. Moneys received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded. Tax credits and reimbursements of expenses are also excluded.

Sources of personal income

This variable identifies the various sources from which an individual aged 15 years and over received their total personal income in the 12 months ending 31 March 2006.

In the census, it is generally only realistic to collect information on money income. This is income that the individual respondent can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills and assets, and transfers received. The concept of money income therefore relies on identifying the sources from which money income is derived.

Excluded are income in kind, imputed income, unrealised income and contingent income. Contingent income is that dependent on the unknown income of a course of action, for example, to sue. Moneys received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded. Tax credits and reimbursements of expenses are also excluded.

Statistical area

These are broad geographic regions that do not conform to any legal or administrative boundaries or have any predetermined population size. There are 13 statistical areas, many of which conform to the old provincial districts. These areas include islands that are outside regions but are part of 'geographic New Zealand'.

The major importance of statistical areas is in historical comparability of data from these areas.

Status in employment

Status in employment classifies employed people aged 15 years and over according to whether they are working for themselves or for other people.

The two main criteria underlying the classification of status in employment are:

  • Economic risk – a worker who assumes some or all of the 'risk' in operating an economic entity is likely to be either an employer or a self-employed person. If this is not the case, a worker is likely to be an employee.
  • Economic control – who decides how and when an employed person's work is to be performed. For example, if a particular worker decides for himself or herself, they are probably either self-employed or an employer, whereas if some other person makes these decisions, a worker is more likely to be an employee.

Study participation

Study participation measures those attending, studying or enrolled at school or anywhere else. It is grouped into: full-time study (20 hours or more a week), part-time study (less than 20 hours a week), and those not studying.

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