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New Zealand Business Demography Statistics: At February 2016
Embargoed until 10:45am  –  27 October 2016
Definitions

About business demography statistics

Business demography statistics provide an annual snapshot (at February) of the structure and characteristics of New Zealand businesses. The series covers economically significant enterprises that are engaged in producing goods and services in New Zealand.

From 2016 onwards, the business demography statistics series will  use the Business Register (BR) as its data source.

More definitions

ANZSIC06: Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006. A business is normally assigned to an ANZSIC06 category according to the predominant activity it is engaged in. ANZSIC06 is a hierarchical classification with four levels: division, subdivision, group, and class.

Birth: occurs when a new enterprise starts operation (ie a combination of production factors is created, and no other national businesses are involved). Births do not include entries into the population due to reactivations, mergers, break-ups, split-offs, or other restructuring of a group of businesses linked by ownership or control. Changes to characteristics of existing businesses are not births (this is largely based on, and fully consistent with, the Eurostat definition of enterprise births). To be a birth in the business demography population, the enterprise and associated geographic units existed at neither time T-1 year nor time T-2 years.

See business births and deaths for more information.

Business location or geographic unit: a separate operating unit engaged in New Zealand in one, or predominantly one, kind of economic activity from a single physical location or base.

Death: occurs when an enterprise ceases operation (ie a combination of production factors is dissolved, and no other domestic businesses are involved). Deaths do not include exits from the population due to temporary inactivity, mergers, takeovers, break-ups, or other restructuring of a group of businesses linked by ownership or control. Changes to characteristics of businesses that remain active are not deaths (this is largely based on, and fully consistent with, the Eurostat definition of enterprise deaths). To be considered a death in the business demography population, the enterprise and associated geographic units exist at neither time T year nor time T+1 year.

See business births and deaths for more information.

Employee count size groups: EC data in this release is summarised into seven employment size groups:

0 EC
1–5 EC
6–9 EC
10–19 EC
20–49 EC
50–99 EC
100+ EC.

Employees or employee count (EC): refers to paid employees. It is a head count of salary and wage earners sourced from taxation data. EC data is available on a monthly basis. The EC used for deriving business demography statistics is for the February month.

Enterprise: an institutional unit that generally corresponds to legal entities operating in New Zealand. It can be a company, partnership, trust, estate, incorporated society, producer board, local or central government organisation, voluntary organisation, or self-employed individual.

Enterprise group: a grouping of enterprises in the Business Register linked by common ownership. Generally, the Business Register only records links of over 50 percent shareholding between enterprises. Types of enterprise groups are:

  • all-resident enterprise group – an enterprise group in which all enterprises are resident in New Zealand
  • multinational enterprise group – an enterprise group that contains one or more enterprises resident outside New Zealand
  • foreign-controlled enterprise group – a multinational enterprise group controlled by a group head with its headquarters outside New Zealand
  • domestically controlled enterprise group – a multinational enterprise group controlled by a group head with its headquarters in New Zealand. 

Entries: enterprises that are present in the business demography population at the end of the reference period, but were not present at the start of the reference period.

Exits: enterprises that are present in the business demography population at the start of the reference period, but are not present at the end of the reference period.

Geographic unit or business location: a separate operating unit engaged in one, or predominantly one, kind of economic activity from a single physical location or base.

Māori enterprise: An enterprise is treated as a Māori enterprise if it meets one (or more) of these conditions:

  • it is an enterprise (business) with a collectively managed asset that uses current Inland Revenue eligibility criteria to be a Māori authority (whether or not it elects to be a Māori authority for tax purposes)
  • it is a commercial business that supports the Māori authority’s business and social activities, and sustains or builds a Māori authority’s asset base
  • it is a business that is 50 percent or more owned by Māori authorities.

Pure birth: birth with a recent birth date. That is, the birth dates of all geographic units and the enterprise are more recent than the February snapshot of time T-2 in the business demography population. Pure births generally exclude reactivations (enterprises dormant for a period that come back into the population).

See business births and deaths for more information.

Reactivation: enterprise dormant for a period that comes back into the business demography population.

Short-lived birth: birth that disappears by time T+1 reference period in the business demography population, due either to death or dormancy.

See business births and deaths for more information.

Survival rate: the percentage of births in each reference period that survives into future reference periods in the business demography population (surviving births divided by total births for a particular reference period). To be a survivor, the new enterprise must have existed at every reference period between its birth year and the given reference period.

Surviving birth: birth that survives at least one period (until time T+1 reference period) in the business demography population.

See business births and deaths for more information.

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