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Housing and neighbourhood deprivation

This chapter compares levels of home ownership among disabled and non-disabled Maori, along with issues relating to housing conditions, and levels of material deprivation in the neighbourhoods where they live.

About housing and well-being

Among the most important benefits of being able to work and earn a reasonable income is the ability to afford decent housing. Good housing is crucial to well-being because it provides shelter, security, and comfort. Owning a home can also provide people with a valuable financial asset which contributes to their material well-being. The standard of housing is also important because it affects other outcomes such as health and overall life satisfaction (OECD, 2011, p82).

Housing tenure

Levels of home ownership are slightly lower for disabled than non-disabled Māori. In 2013, just over four in ten disabled Māori lived in homes owned by the occupants or held in a family trust (with or without mortgages), compared with half of all non-disabled Māori. Although disabled Māori were less likely to own their own homes, if they did own them they were more likely to do so without a mortgage. This reflects the fact that disabled people tend to be older, and have therefore had more time to pay off mortgages.

Age is a significant factor in home ownership for all population groups. Among disabled Māori, 56 percent of those aged 45 and over lived in homes owned by the occupants or held in a family trust, compared with 34 percent of those under the age of 45.

Figure 5

Housing issues

The Survey found that many disabled Māori felt there were problems with the houses they lived in. Four in ten reported that they lived in cold houses, and a third in damp houses. Additionally, 12 percent said their house was not large enough, and 16 percent said there were other problems. All these problems were much more common for disabled than non-disabled Māori.

Figure 6

Among disabled Māori, children were more likely than adults to live in houses which the occupants felt had problems: 45 percent of children lived in houses that were considered cold, 39 percent in houses regarded as damp, and 16 percent in houses that were considered not large enough.

Neighbourhood deprivation

The NZDep2013 index uses a range of information from the census to score neighbourhoods or small areas according to their level of socio-economic deprivation (Atkinson, Salmond, and Crampton, 2014). These deprivation scores can be used to rank areas from high to low and divide them into quintiles, each representing a fifth of all areas in the country, from quintile 1 (the least deprived 20 percent of all areas) to quintile 5 (the most deprived 20 percent).

Māori in general tend to be over-represented in the higher or most deprived areas and under-represented in the lower or least deprived areas. Figure 7 shows that this was true for both disabled and non-disabled Māori in 2013. Within the Māori population, disabled people were more likely than others to live in the most deprived areas and less likely to live in the least deprived areas. Around four in ten disabled Māori lived in quintile five – the most deprived 20 percent of areas in New Zealand.

Figure 7

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