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Screen Industry: 2013/14
Embargoed until 10:45am  –  08 April 2015
Data quality

Period-specific information
This section contains data information that has changed since the last release.

General information
This section contains information that does not change between releases.

Period-specific information

Population selection

The population for the Screen Industry Survey 2013/14 was 3,312 enterprises. In 2013 it was 3,351 enterprises.

In some cases, employers supplied information about their contractors. This improved the quality and consistency of responses, but also increased the number of contracting businesses in the population. See 'Criteria for population selection' below for more detail.

Response rates

The target response rate for the Screen Industry Survey 2013/14 was 75 percent. We achieved an overall response rate of 79 percent.

Some businesses were identified as key units if their response to a survey question was considerable in the previous year, or if GST figures suggested that they would significantly affect the results in the current year. The target response rate was 100 percent for businesses identified as key units. We achieved a 100 percent response rate.

Reference period

The reference period for the survey was the 2013/14 financial year. Businesses with balance dates falling between 1 January and 30 September supplied financial data for the year ending 2014. Businesses with balance dates falling between 1 October and 31 December supplied financial data for the year ending 2013.

Given the transitory nature of businesses in the industry, we excluded any business that stopped operating before 1 April 2013 or that started up after 31 March 2014.

Data not published

The 'Digital switch-over' for television broadcasting occurred during the collection period. Due to the different times when regions were required to switch over, the data collected in the survey this year on digital content could be very difficult to interpret. Therefore, we have removed the figures for the percentage of income received from digital broadcasting, as all businesses should now have 100 percent of their broadcasting as digital broadcasting.

General information

Target population

The target population is all economically significant New Zealand businesses involved in any screen industry activity. The screen industry encompasses all film, video, television, commercial, music video, and non-broadcast media activities in the aspects of production (including pre-production), post-production, distribution, exhibition, and broadcasting. All enterprises identified as part of the population are required to complete the questionnaire.

The population includes all businesses that meet the economic significance criteria and fall within the Australia New Zealand Standard Industry Classification (ANZSIC06) classifications listed below.

J5511 Motion picture and video production: businesses mainly engaged in producing motion pictures, videos, and television programmes or commercials.

J5512 Motion picture and video distribution: businesses mainly engaged in acquiring distribution rights and distributing motion pictures and videos. These products are distributed (through leasing and wholesale channels) to a range of exhibitors such as motion picture theatres and television stations using a variety of visual media.

J5513 Motion picture exhibition: businesses mainly engaged in screening motion pictures using a variety of visual media. Businesses screening productions at festivals and other similar events are included in this class.

J5514 Post-production services and other motion picture and video activities: businesses mainly engaged in providing post-production services and other motion picture and video activities, including specialised motion picture or video post-production services such as editing, film/tape transfers, titling, subtitling, credits, closed captioning and computer-produced graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film.

J5621 Free-to-air television broadcasting: businesses mainly engaged in free-to-air television broadcasting of visual content, in the form of electronic images together with sound, through broadcasting studios and facilities. These businesses may also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated broadcast television stations, which in turn broadcast the programmes on a pre-determined schedule. Transmissions are made available without cost to the viewer.

J5622 Cable and other subscription broadcasting: businesses mainly engaged in broadcasting television programmes on a subscription or fee basis (such as subscription cable or satellite television broadcasting) to viewers.

J6020 Other information services: businesses mainly engaged in providing other information services.

Exclusions to the population

We exclude any business primarily undertaking activities not directly related to the process of making or screening a screen production from the population.

Businesses and individuals providing acting services and recruitment are excluded. Other examples of excluded businesses are those providing services to crew (accommodation and catering), services to office management (accounting and legal), and services that support the industry but are not involved in screen productions (educational bodies, film libraries, and film trusts).

We also exclude any businesses that supply services to the industry but not on an exclusive basis. These businesses (which include builders and vehicle hire) are excluded as information is unlikely to be easily isolated from other business activities.

The following ANZSIC06 classifications are excluded from the population:

G4242 Entertainment media retailing: businesses mainly engaged in retailing audio tapes, compact discs, computer games, digital versatile discs, or video cassettes.

N7211 Employment placement and recruitment services: businesses mainly engaged in listing employment vacancies and in referring or placing applicants for employment in any field.

L6631 Heavy machinery and scaffolding rental and hiring: businesses mainly engaged in hiring, leasing, or renting (without operators) heavy machinery and scaffolding (including mobile platforms) from stock physically held for the purpose.

Adjustments involving goods and services tax

Published dollar values exclude GST. Most respondents give GST-exclusive figures. We adjust the rest when we process the data.

Data collection

The screen industry release includes information from data sources such as the Screen Industry Survey, Linked Employee-Employer Data (LEED), and the Annual Enterprise Survey.

Screen Industry Survey

We mail the Screen Industry Survey to all known businesses that meet our population selection criteria.

Additional population selection

To ensure that as much of the target population as possible is covered in the survey, we supplement the selection from ANZSIC classifications above with businesses listed in The Data Book (New Zealand’s screen production directory) and match them to businesses on the Business Frame.
See The Data Book.

The publisher of The Data Book provides us with a snapshot of online listings on a set date each year. This gives us time to create the population, and reduces any risks that a change in publishing date for The Data Book could cause.

Linked Employee-Employer Data (LEED)

We collected information on employees in the screen industry from LEED to provide more detail on the staffing situations of the businesses in the Screen Industry Survey. This screen industry information included:

  • number of people employed
  • number of jobs
  • earnings from jobs
  • distribution by age groups
  • distribution by sex
  • percentiles for earnings from jobs
  • percentiles of wages earned by people.

See Linked Employer-Employee Data for more information about LEED.

Annual Enterprise Survey (AES)

We collected information on value added to the screen industry from the Annual Enterprise Survey (AES).

See Annual Enterprise Survey for more information about AES.

Data processing

We check the data to assess any inconsistencies between questions. If we find inconsistent data, we correct it based on existing information, or follow up with respondents.

The following outlines the imputation methodology we use in the Screen Industry Survey.

Unit non-response: occurs when businesses in the survey do not return the questionnaire, or do not answer all the predefined key questions (whether they are a producer, contractor, distributor, exhibitor, or broadcaster).

We compensate for non-response by using weight adjustment. This 'weights ups' the responding firms, to compensate for the non-responding firms in the same weighting cell. We multiply initial selection weights by a non-response factor to give the adjusted weight.

Weighting cells are based on ANZSIC06, annual GST turnover, and region. We create separate weighting cells for key units within each ANZSIC group.

We use historical imputation where weight adjustment significantly over- or underestimates a unit that otherwise has little variation in its previous survey data. In these cases, we may impute the values from the previous return for the current year to account for the missing data.

Item non-response: responding businesses that do not complete one or more questions that they should have are treated as item non-responses, and have their missing variables imputed.

Imputation cells and merging: businesses are assigned to imputation cells for us to calculate and assign a new weight. Imputation cells are based on the main activity of the business, annual GST turnover, and region. We create separate weighting cells for key units within each ANZSIC group. To ensure robust calculations are applied, minimum constraints allow groups to merge imputation cells until sufficient responses are achieved, or constraints met.

Imputation of numeric variables: we use weighted mean imputation and donor imputation.

For totals and other key numeric variables, we calculate a weighted mean from linked responding units for each numeric line code within each imputation cell. We then impute data for non-responding businesses with the weighted mean for their imputation cell.

Donor imputation randomly selects a donor from within each imputation cell. The non-respondent's data is then imputed with the value(s) from the donor. We use donor imputation to impute components and percentages so the distribution is maintained.

Imputation of categoric questions: for categoric imputation, we use donor imputation. We randomly select a donor within each imputation cell and the non-respondent is imputed with the value(s) from the donor.

Quality of data

As the Screen Industry Survey is a census rather than a sample survey, the data is not subject to sample variability, and there is no sample error. However, other inaccuracies, such as non-sampling errors, may affect the data.

Non-sampling errors occur for reasons such as respondent error, interpretation variations, frame quality, and errors in processing. We impute data for non-respondents, which may introduce errors. While every effort is made to minimise these types of error, they may still occur. We can’t quantify their effect.

We reduce the risk of non-sampling error by careful design and thorough testing of questionnaires, efficient operating systems and procedures, and appropriate methodology.

We compare the survey data with annual reports, websites, trade data, and other indicators we publish. Where the survey results differ substantially, we study the data in more detail. Exact comparisons are not always possible, due to differences in timing or definition.

Interpreting the data

Sector breakdown

In this release, the screen industry is classified to the following groups: production and post-production, broadcasting, distribution, and exhibition. We determine classification in these groups by revenue activity (including expenditure activity in the production and post-production sector).

Structure of screen industry

Image, Structure of screen industry.

We can further define the production and post-production sector by the relationship of the business with the work being created. Producing is activity carried out on works that are the end-to-end responsibility of that business. Contracting is activity carried out on works being produced by another business. This means that a business may generate revenue from producing (work on its own productions) and contracting (work contributing to another business’ production) in the same year. Business counts for those involved in producing or contracting may change from year to year as business activity changes.

Revenue as a measure of industry activity

Total revenue is the measure we use to define activity in the screen industry. We ask each business to report their revenue in each sector, including the production and post-production sector, exclusive of their relationships to other businesses.

While revenue is a valid measure of activity, it does not account for the relationships between businesses within the industry. In an industry with many contracting and sub-contracting relationships, there is a high likelihood of some double-counting in the totals.

Consistency with previous releases

Contracting: is activity that contributes to a work that another business has production responsibility for. This includes the contracted supply of services related to any aspect of production or post-production activity. It also includes the contracted supply of industry-specific equipment or facilities. In previous releases, we defined this as the business type ‘contracting businesses’. However, a business may undertake both contracting and producing activities in a single year. Referring to the activity, rather than the business type, is more accurate.

Producing: is activity on a work for which the business has end-to-end responsibility. This does not prevent the company from subcontracting parts of that work. In previous releases, we referred to this as ‘screen production company’ activity. This could mislead data users to believe that the total revenue of these businesses was limited to the amounts in this column. Referring to the activity, rather than the business type, provides a more accurate picture of the revenue sources and activity in the industry.

Regional business location: we derive a regional-base location is derived from the data to give an idea of the regional distribution of businesses in the screen industry. We determine this by using the reported physical location of each business. Where a business has more than one location, we use the location with the largest rolling mean employment count. This means a business generating screen activity from more than one location has all that activity recorded against one location only.


Data published from the Screen Industry Survey must conform to the provisions of the Statistics Act 1975. Statistics NZ must publish data so that no individual can be identified.

See information about privacy, security, and confidentiality of information supplied. The confidentiality process may  cause a total to differ slightly from the sum of the contributing cells.

More information

Statistics in this release have been produced in accordance with the Official Statistics System principles and protocols for producers of Tier 1 statistics for quality. They conform to the Statistics NZ Methodological Standard for Reporting of Data Quality.


While all care and diligence has been used in processing, analysing, and extracting data and information in this publication, Statistics NZ gives no warranty it is error-free and will not be liable for any loss or damage suffered by the use directly, or indirectly, of the information in this publication.


Our information releases are delivered electronically by third parties. Delivery may be delayed by circumstances outside our control. Statistics NZ does not accept responsibility for any such delay.

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