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Technical notes

Background to the Screen Industry Survey release

Government has identified that creativity, imagination, and innovation are major driving forces for sustainable economic growth. The Screen Industry Survey is part of an overall government strategy to enhance the collection of information to support the screen industry. The overall purpose of the survey is to recognise and establish an accurate assessment of activities within the screen industry. The Screen Industry Survey aims to determine the full contribution of the industry to the New Zealand economy, and to identify any impediments and opportunities for sustainable industry growth.

The Screen Industry Survey was sent to businesses involved in aspects of the screen industry. The survey collected information to measure the size and nature of the industry and to identify areas for future growth and development.

Methodological changes to screen industry data

Data from the 2006 and 2007 financial years have been revised in some of the tables in this publication. Revisions to data for these years were first included in the tables of the first release of 2008 financial year data in May 2009 – see the Screen Industry Survey: 2007/08.

Incorrect weights to adjust for non-response had previously been applied to data for both the 2006 and 2007 financial years, and this has now been corrected for all published tables. Changes made to the weighting cell methodology for the 2008 financial year data have also been incorporated in the 2007 financial year data, which includes the implementation of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006 (ANZSIC 06). These changes mean that both the 2007 financial year data and the 2008 financial year data shown in this publication are consistent, allowing comparisons to be made between the two years.

Note that data for both the 2005 and 2006 years are produced using the previous version of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC 96). However, this has only a minor impact on its comparability with later years. See the table further down (Gross Revenue for the Screen Industry 2007) for an example of the impact of the methodology change on the 2007 financial year data.

Reference period for the survey

The reference period for the survey was the 2008 financial year. For businesses with balance dates falling between 1 January and 30 September, this is the financial data for the year ending 2008. For businesses with balance dates falling between 1 October and 31 December, this is the financial data for the year ending 2007.

Given the transitory nature of businesses in the industry, any businesses that 'ceased' (ceased operating) before 1 April 2007 or ‘birthed’ (started up) after 31 March 2008 were excluded from the population.

Introduction of a new industrial classification for 2007/08

In May 2009, the first release of data from the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 was published using the ANZSIC 06, which replaced the 1996 version (ANZSIC 96). Previous screen industry surveys were designed and published using the ANZSIC 96, although the Screen Industry Survey 2006/2007 was designed under both ANZSIC 96 and ANZSIC 06 to allow for the impact of the changed classification to be measured. The Screen Industry Survey 2006/07 has been reprocessed using the ANZSIC 06 and this publication presents results from both the 2006/07 and 2007/08 years using the ANZSIC 06 to allow the trends in results to be shown over this period.

Results from the 2004/05 and 2005/06 years are produced using ANZSIC 96.

The development of a new version of the ANZSIC has been driven by changes in the structure, composition and organisation of industrial and business activities in Australia and New Zealand. Significant technological changes since the ANZSIC 96 was developed have affected the way industry and businesses operate. In addition, industries undertaking new activities have emerged, requiring a review of the ANZSIC 96 and the development of a more contemporary version of the classification to better reflect the new economy. More information about the ANZSIC 06 is available on our website. The conversion of the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 to ANZSIC 06 was completed using the following steps:

• the sample for the Screen Industry Survey 2006/07 was designed using both the ANZSIC 96 and the ANZSIC 06
• the analysis of the Screen Industry Survey 2006/07 data was completed using the ANZSIC 96 and published in the Screen Industry Survey: 2006/07
• the sample for the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 was designed and optimised using the ANZSIC 06
• weighting and imputation cells for the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 were reviewed and created using the ANZSIC 06
• the analysis of Screen Industry Survey 2006/07 and 2007/08 data was completed using the ANZSIC 06.

The following table provides an indication of the effect of the change from the ANZSIC 96 to the ANZSIC 06 using data collected in the Screen Industry Survey 2006/07.


Gross revenue for the Screen Industry 2007

(1) Production and post-production consists of contractors and screen production companies.

Note: Figures may not sum to totals due to rounding.

Symbol:
R = Revised

Survey population

The population is defined as all economically significant New Zealand businesses involved in any screen industry activity. Specifically, the industry encompasses all film, video, television, commercial, music video, and non-broadcast media activities in the aspects of production (including pre-production), post-production, distribution, exhibition, and broadcasting. The population for the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 was 2,545 enterprises.

All businesses must be found on the Statistics New Zealand Business Frame. The Business Frame defines a business as economically significant if it meets one or more of the following criteria:

• has greater than $30,000 annual GST expenses or sales

• had more than two employees over the last year

• is in a GST-exempt industry

• is part of a group of businesses.

For the purpose of this survey, the population included all businesses that meet the economic significance criteria and fall within the ANZSIC 06 classifications listed below.

J5511 Motion picture and video production

Units mainly engaged in producing motion pictures, videos and television programmes or commercials. These productions are recorded and stored on a variety of analogue or digital visual media such as film, video tape or DVD.

J5512 Motion picture and video distribution

Units mainly engaged in acquiring distribution rights and distributing motion pictures and videos. These products are distributed (through leasing and wholesale channels) to a range of exhibitors such as motion picture theatres and television stations using a variety of visual media.

J5513 Motion picture exhibition

Units mainly engaged in screening motion pictures using a variety of visual media. Included in this class are units screening productions at festivals and other similar events.

J5514 Post-production services and other motion picture and video activities

Units mainly engaged in providing post-production services and other motion picture and video activities, including specialised motion picture or video post-production services such as editing, film/tape transfers, titling, subtitling, credits, closed captioning and computer-produced graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film.

J5621 Free-to-air television broadcasting

Units mainly engaged in free-to-air television broadcasting of visual content, in the form of electronic images together with sound, through broadcasting studios and facilities. These units may also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated broadcast television stations, which in turn broadcast the programs on a pre-determined schedule. Transmissions are made available without cost to the viewer.

J5622 Cable and other subscription broadcasting

Units mainly engaged in broadcasting television programs on a subscription or fee basis (such as subscription cable or satellite television broadcasting) to viewers.

J6020 Other information services

Units mainly engaged in providing other information services.

Additions

To ensure that as much of the target population as possible was covered in the survey, the ANZSIC classifications were supplemented with listings in The Data Book (New Zealand’s Screen Production Directory) that were matched to the Business Frame.

Exclusions

Any activity not directly related to the process of making or screening a screen production was excluded from the population. Activities related to acting and all auxiliary services not directly involved in these activities are excluded. Other examples of excluded activities are all services to crew (accommodation and catering), services to office management (accounting and legal), and services that support the industry but are not involved in screen productions (educational bodies, film libraries, and film trusts). Businesses that supply services to the industry but not on an exclusive basis were also excluded. These businesses (which include builders and vehicle hire) are excluded as information is unlikely to be easily isolated from other business activities.

Data collection

The Screen Industry Survey is a postal census of all known businesses meeting the population selection criteria. The survey population was selected by targeting seven Australian New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) codes on the Statistics New Zealand Business Frame supplemented by listings in The Data Book (New Zealand’s Screen Production Directory). This enables the survey population to capture businesses that are involved in all aspects of the screen industry, but which would normally fall out of scope based on ANZSIC classification criteria.

Response rate

The target response rate for the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 was 75 percent for units in the population list. Businesses that were identified as key respondents (predominantly based on GST figures) required a response rate of 100 percent.

An overall response rate of 79 percent was achieved, including 100 percent of key businesses.

Non-response and imputation

The following gives an outline of the imputation methodology used in the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08.

Unit and item non-responses

The unit non-response criteria were that the business:

• did not return a form or it returned a blank form

• returned a form but did not answer the key questions on being a producer, contractor, distributor, exhibitor or broadcaster.

These units were not imputed for, but were considered a complete non-response and were compensated for by using weight adjustment. The weight adjustment is used to 'rate up' the responding firms to compensate for the non-responding firms in the same weighting cell. Initial selection weights are multiplied by a non-response factor to give the adjusted weight.

Weighting cells were based on ANZSIC, annual GST turnover, region, and if they were a key business.

Responding units that did not complete one or more questions that they should have were treated as item non-responses and had their missing variables imputed.

Imputation of item non-response – numeric variables

Imputation cells and merging

Units were assigned to imputation cells for the calculation and assignment of imputation factors. Imputation cells were based on the main activity of the business, annual GST turnover, region, and if they were a key business.

For each variable there was a minimum number and percentage of linked units within the imputation cell for the imputation method to run in that cell for that variable. This was to ensure the robustness of the imputation factor calculations. If an imputation cell did not reach these criteria then it was merged before imputation, following a list of merging preferences, until sufficient responses were achieved. The imputation factor was then calculated from all linked units within the merged imputation cell.

Imputation of numeric variables

The imputation methods used were weighted mean imputation and donor imputation.

With the weighted mean method, a weighted mean is calculated from linked responding units for each numeric linecode within each imputation cell. Non-responding units are then imputed with the weighted mean for their imputation cell. Weighted mean imputation was used to impute totals.

Donor imputation randomly selects a donor from within each imputation cell. The non-respondent is then imputed with the value(s) from the donor. Donor imputation was used to impute components and percentages so that the distribution was maintained.

Imputation of categoric questions

For categoric imputation, the method used was donor imputation, where a donor is randomly selected within each imputation cell and the non-respondent is imputed with the value(s) from the donor.

Unlinking and special treatment

Unlinking

Influential responses were excluded from the imputation factor calculations for numeric variables by unlinking. There are three kinds of unlinking:

• Automatic exclusion – due to logic, a unit that is non-response (unit or item), specially treated or not required to answer that question.

• Automatic unlinking – due to influence, units with undesirable influence on the imputation factor calculation for a variable are automatically detected and unlinked for that variable (with the ability for manual declining of this). The checks are done at the imputation cell level or merged imputation cell level and are carried out separately for each variable.

• Manual unlinking – due to influence, additional units with undesirable influence on imputation factor calculations that are not automatically detected can be unlinked.

Special treatment

Special treatment candidates are identified as outliers using an inter-quartile check. The checks are carried out separately by variable. However, if a unit is accepted for special treatment for one variable then it will be specially treated for all variables. If a unit is specially treated, then its final weight is set to 1 and it is unlinked for all imputation factor calculations. If a unit is not specially treated, then its final weight is its adjusted weight.

Data quality

Given that the Screen Industry Survey is a census rather than a sample, the data is not subject to sample variability; therefore, there is no sample error. However, other inaccuracies, such as non-sampling errors, may affect the data.

Non-sampling error occurs for reasons such as respondent error, interpretation variations, frame quality and errors in processing. Imputation methodologies are used to incorporate non-respondents, which may introduce some error to results. While every effort is made to minimise these types of error, they may still occur. It is not possible to quantify their effect.

Every effort has been made to reduce non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design and thorough testing of questionnaires, efficient operating systems and procedures, and appropriate methodology.

In analysis of the results, the survey data have been compared with annual reports, websites, trade data and other indicators published by Statistics NZ. Where the survey results differed substantially, more detailed study of the data was made. In some cases, however, exact comparisons are not possible due to differences in timing or definition.

Confidentiality

Data published from the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08 must conform to the provisions of the Statistics Act 1975, which requires that all statistical information published by Statistics NZ shall be arranged to prevent any individual being identifiable. For more information on Statistics NZ confidentiality rules please see our website (www.stats.govt.nz).

Presentation of numerical totals

In order to preserve the confidentiality of respondents, counts are randomly rounded to base 3. When data in a table has been randomly rounded to base 3, every value in the table is a multiple of 3. The probabilities of rounding up or down are set so that in the long run the expected value, after rounding, equals the original count. The randomness of this kind of rounding may result in a total that differs slightly from the sum of the individual cells contributing to this total.

Concepts and terms

ANZSIC

The Australian and New Zealand Industrial Classification (ANZSIC).

Broadcasting

The distribution of works through media such as television or the Internet.

Business Frame

A register maintained by Statistics New Zealand of all businesses operating in New Zealand.

The Data Book

The Data Book is New Zealand’s only directory of the screen production industry. It provides free listings for businesses and individuals involved in screen production in New Zealand.
See: http://www.databook.co.nz/.

Digital technology

Digital technology is measured in terms of the use of digital recording formats (for example DVCAM), digital distribution (for example internet distribution), digital exhibition (for example digital cinema), and digital broadcasting (for example digital television broadcasting).

Distribution

The process of delivering the completed work for display to the public market. This includes marketing of the completed work.

Economically significant business

A business is considered economically significant if it has an annual GST sales (or purchases) figure of at least $30,000 at the time of population selection.

Employees

The number of employees is defined by a business's rolling mean employment (RME) count. RME is a 12-month moving average of the monthly employment count (EC) figure. The EC is obtained from taxation data.

Enterprise

A business or service entity operating in New Zealand. It can be a company, partnership, trust, estate, incorporated society, producer board, local or central government organisation, voluntary organisation or self-employed individual.

Exhibition

The display of a completed work to the public at pre-set locations, such as cinemas or museum displays.

Funding

Direct investment made by government and private organisations specifically targeting a single project or series of projects to aid with costs and enable production. This incorporates production investment provided to businesses.

Goods and services tax (GST)

Respondents are asked to exclude GST if possible in the financial figures provided in the questionnaire. If they have not, Statistics New Zealand removes GST to make all businesses comparable.

Gross revenue

Gross revenue is used to define total turnover within the industry, it measures all transactions and money flows within the industry, including internal transactions. The industry is measured using turnover as opposed to net revenue earned by the industry.

Imputation

If there is any non-response in a survey we may impute, whether implicitly (by 'rating up') or explicitly (by unit record imputation). Rating up is when the estimate is derived from the achieved sample with the weights adjusted accordingly.

Non-broadcast media

Works intended for a specialised audience, such as corporate, marketing, training or educational media.

Post-production

All activities involved in putting together scenes to make a production complete, for example editing, duplication, visual effects, audio.

Production

All work leading up to and including filming. This includes development, pre-production and principal photography.

Screen industry

This term is used for all aspects of the industry included in the Screen Industry Survey 2007/08. Screen industry refers to all businesses involved in screen production and post-production, distribution, exhibition and broadcasting.

Screen production sector

All stages involved in completing production activity within the screen industry, including production and post-production work in all sub-sectors of film, television, commercials, music videos and non-broadcast media.

Copyright

Information obtained from Statistics NZ may be freely used, reproduced, or quoted unless otherwise specified. In all cases Statistics NZ must be acknowledged as the source.

Liability

While care has been used in processing, analysing and extracting information, Statistics NZ gives no warranty that the information supplied is free from error. Statistics NZ shall not be liable for any loss suffered through the use, directly or indirectly, of any information, product or service.

Timing

Timed statistical releases are delivered using postal and electronic services provided by third parties. Delivery of these releases may be delayed by circumstances outside the control of Statistics NZ. Statistics NZ accepts no responsibility for any such delays.

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