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Owner-Occupied Households
Household Composition

Important Information | National Trend | Regional Trend | Territorial Authority Trend

Household Composition Tables

This analysis explores the composition of owner-occupied households over the last decade to help assess the suitability of current owner-occupied housing stock in New Zealand.

National Trend

Over the three census years between 1991 and 2001, New Zealand's home ownership rate, or the proportion of owner-occupied households to total households, has been falling. All household composition categories have followed this pattern.

Figure 1

Table, Home Ownership Rate by Households Composition.

Source: Statistics New Zealand, Census of Population and Dwellings, 1991, 1996 and 2001

The total number of owner-occupied households in New Zealand increased by 2.3 percent between 1991 and 2001, a numeric increase of 19,740 households. However, the individual household composition categories showed significant variation from this. At the extremes, other multiperson owner-occupied households declined by 5.4 percent over the 10-years, while three- or more family owner-occupied households increased by 24.9 percent.

Figure 2

Graph, Number of Owner-Occupied Households by Household Composition.

Source: Statistics New Zealand, Census of Population and Dwellings, 1991, 1996 and 2001

When examined proportionally one-family households made up the majority of owner-occupied households in 2001, at 643,548 households or 74.3 percent. This proportion has fallen since 1991 when the proportion was 77.5 percent. Two-family households increased by 20.2 percent over the 10-year period but their proportion of all owner-occupied households has stayed relatively consistent. In 2001, this category made up 15,975 or 1.8 percent of owner-occupied households. Although three- or more family households showed the greatest percentage change between 1991 and 2001, their proportion of total owner-occupied households has remained at 0.1 percent in all three census years. Other multiperson households made-up 2.8 percent of owner-occupied households by 2001, down 0.2 percentage points from 1991. One-person households have increased their share from 17.9 percent in 1991 to 21 percent in 2001.

A breakdown of the one-family household type, shows that couple with child(ren) households retained their dominant position in 2001, comprising 42.4 percent of the one-family household type, but this has decreased from 49.2 percent in 1991. Couple only households have increased by 12.5 percent between 1991 and 2001 to make up 40.1 percent of the one-family household type, up from 34.9 in 1991 and 37.9 percent in 1996. One parent with children households have remained at a similar level: 9.9 percent in 1991, 9.4 percent in 1996 and 9.7 percent in 2001.

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Regional Trend

For all regions, one-family households as a proportion of total owner-occupied households have fallen between 1991 and 2001. Tasman Region had the highest percentage of this type of household, at 77.5 percent, but this has declined from 80.3 percent in 1991. Numerically, though, Tasman Region in 2001 had 8,544 one-family households compared with 7,578 of the same household type in 1991. Southland Region had the largest percentage change in the 10-year period, recording a 12.8 percent decrease in the number of one-family households. Nelson Region had the lowest percentage of one-family owner-occupied households in 2001, at 72 percent.

Couple only households as a proportion of one-family owner-occupied households were highest in Marlborough Region, at 49.4 percent. Tasman Region had the highest percentage change, with an increase of 32.3 percent. Auckland Region had the lowest percentage of this type of household, at 34.4 percent, and also experienced the smallest percentage change over the 10-years, up 5.8 percent. The number of couple only households in Auckland Region increased by 3,336 between 1991 and 2001 to reach 60,393. All regions recorded increases in this type of household over the 10 years.

Proportionally, couple with children households form the majority of one-family owner-occupied households at the national level but some regional variation emerged in 2001. Only four regions had a higher percentage of this type of household than couple only households, namely Auckland Region (45.3 percent), Wellington Region (44.9 percent), Southland Region (43.8 percent) and Gisborne Region (39.4 percent). The lowest percentage was recorded in Northland Region, at 37.6 percent. In 1991, all regions had higher percentages of this type of household compared with any other one-family household composition.

One parent with children households as a percentage of one-family owner-occupied households remained relatively stable across all regions in the period 1991 to 2001. However, the percentage changes from 1991 to 2001 do show some diversity. Tasman Region had a 24.6 percent increase while Hawke's Bay Region decreased by 17.2 percent. In all, 11 regions had decreases in this type of household, the exceptions being the Tasman, Marlborough, Canterbury, Wellington and Nelson Regions.

West Coast Region had the largest percentage of one-person owner-occupied households, in 2001, at 24.7 percent and Auckland Region had the lowest, at 18.7 percent. All regions saw increases in the number of one-person owner-occupied households between 1991 and 2001, with Bay of Plenty Region experiencing the largest, rising 37.4 percent.

Figure 3

Graph, Percentage Change in Humber of Owner-Occupied Housholds for Selected Regions.

Source: Statistics New Zealand, Census of Population and Dwellings, 1991 and 2001

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Territorial Authority Trend

Selwyn District in 2001 had the highest percentage of one-family owner occupied households, at 84.3 percent or 6,027 households. Auckland City had the lowest percentage, at 69.4 percent or 47,406 households. Queenstown-Lakes District had the greatest percentage increase over the last three censuses, at 50.1 percent, recording 2,652 one-family owner-occupied households in 2001. Kawerau District had the largest percentage decrease, at 32.6 percent, totalling 1,122 of this type of household in 2001.

Thames-Coromandel District, at 57.9 percent or 2,850 households in 2001, had the highest proportion of couple-only households within the one-family owner-occupied household type, a position it also held in 1996 and 1991. The majority of the territorial authorities mirrored the regional and national percentage changes in this household type by showing significant percentage increases. Only three territorial authorities recorded decreases: Wanganui down 2.3 percent, Lower Hutt down 1.5 percent and Auckland City down 2.2 percent.

Just six territorial authorities experienced an increase in the number of couple with children households owning their homes between 1991 and 2001, although this type of household still remains the most common of the one-family household type to be owner-occupied. Queenstown-Lakes District again features here, with a 41.1 percent increase. Kawerau District had the largest percentage decline, falling 53 percent in 2001 to record 441 couple with children households.

The final main component of the one-family household type is the one parent with children household. Kawerau District had the highest proportion of these households owning their homes, in 2001, (16.6 percent), followed by Opotiki District (14.4 percent) and Wairoa District (14.2 percent). Central Otago District had the lowest percentage of this type of household (5.7 percent).

Manukau City had the highest proportions of two-family and three- or more family owner-occupied households in 2001, at 5.6 percent (2,808 households) and 0.6 percent (303 households), respectively. Approximately one-quarter of territorial authorities did not have any three- or more family owner-occupied households in 2001.

Auckland City in 2001 had the highest proportion (5 percent) of other multiperson households to total owner-occupied households in its authority, but, numerically, the number of households has decreased by 315 since 1991, falling to 3,381.

Owner-occupied one-person households have seen strong increases with just one exception: in Auckland City, the number of this type of household declined by 1.6 percent to total 15,585 households in 2001. Queenstown-Lakes District's one-person households increased by 68.8 percent or 291 households between 1991 and 2001. Overall Buller District in 2001 had the highest proportion of owner-occupied one-person households, at 26.8 percent or 708 households.

Figure 4

Table, Three Territorial Authorities With the Highest Number of Owner-Occupied Households in New Zealand by Household Composition.

Source: Statistics New Zealand, Census of Population and Dwellings, 2001

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Important Information

Owner-occupied

Unless otherwise stated, owner-occupied households include the tenure of household categories:

  • Dwelling owned or partly owned by usual resident(s), who make mortgage payments
  • Dwelling owned or partly owned by usual resident(s), who do not make mortgage payments
  • Dwelling owned or partly owned by usual resident(s), mortgage arrangements not further defined

Household Composition

This is a derived variable that classifies all households according to the relationships between usually resident people. Households are classified according to the presence, number and type of family nuclei and the presence of related and unrelated people.

Household composition categories (highest level) used in this analysis:

  • One-family
  • Two-family
  • Three- or more family
  • Other multiperson
  • One-person

One-family household types (medium level):

  • One parent with children
  • One parent with children and others
  • Couple only
  • Couple only and others
  • Couple with children
  • Couple with children and others

Calculations

Percentages have been calculated using stated answers only.

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