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Appendix 1: Data sources that measure civic and cultural participation

This appendix provides an overview of existing data sources that measure civic and cultural participation, including:

National and local data sources by output stream

Output stream 1: Acceptance of diversity, social inclusion, and shared identities

NZGSS primary content (Statistics NZ)

The NZGSS primary content contains the following relevant measures:

  • ability to express identity
  • acceptance of diversity
  • generalised trust
  • experienced discrimination
  • migrant status.

These measures are included in every survey iteration (every two years). As a multi-dimensional survey, the NZGSS primary content also provides information on inequality in, and the joint distribution of, well-being outcomes as measures of social inclusion.

Census of Population and Dwellings (Statistics NZ)

We can use census data to analyse maintenance of heritage language by minority ethnic groups and migrants, but not for wider measures of civic and cultural participation and well-being.

Disability Survey (Statistics NZ)

The New Zealand Disability Survey is the most comprehensive source of information on disabled people in New Zealand. It allows for comparisons between disabled and non-disabled people on key social and economic outcomes, providing insight to levels of social inclusion of disabled people. Last run in 2013, the survey collected data from over 4,000 disabled adults (aged 15 years or over) and children (under 15 years) living in private households or group homes, and from adults living in residential care facilities.

Longitudinal Immigration Survey: New Zealand (LisNZ) (Statistics NZ)

LisNZ collected information on how well migrants settle, both socially and economically, during their first three years as permanent residents of New Zealand. The survey included questions on civic and cultural participation, as well as topics such as employment and standard of living, social networks, knowledge and skills, and English language proficiency. LisNZ followed the same migrants at 6, 18, and 36 months after taking up permanent residence. At the end of wave 3 interviews in October 2009, LisNZ had collected data from over 5,000 migrants, with a retention rate of 85 percent between wave 1 and 2.

LisNZ was only run once, but the data has been added to Statistics NZ’s Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI), enabling ongoing longitudinal analysis. The IDI is a linked longitudinal dataset that covers an extended range of pathways and transitions information. It currently includes economic, justice, health and safety, migration, tenancy, and business data.

Immigration Survey Monitoring Programme (Department of Labour)

The Department of Labour runs surveys through its Immigration Survey Monitoring Programme “to build up an evidence base of data on migrants’ settlement outcomes, employers’ experiences with migrants, and community attitudes towards immigration.” The programme includes three surveys: community, migrants, and employers.

The Community Survey, first piloted in 2009, is repeated each year to measure changes over time and to respond to new information needs. The survey asks people living in New Zealand about their attitudes towards immigration and perceptions of migrants.

The Migrants Survey, also piloted in 2009, collects data on the short-term settlement outcomes of migrants, including questions about their life in New Zealand, employment and income, living arrangements, and plans for the future, eg satisfaction with life, feelings of safety, housing tenure, and intentions to stay.

Both surveys are conducted by Research New Zealand. Samples for the Community and Migrants surveys are drawn from the electoral role and an Immigration New Zealand database, respectively. Interviews are completed online and by phone.

The Community Survey has a response rate of 22 percent, with an achieved sample of 1,292 New Zealanders. The Migrants Survey has a response rate of 36 percent, with an achieved sample of 3,092 migrants.

Due to the relatively low response rate to both surveys and identified biases in terms of sample composition, the Department recommends interpreting the survey results with caution, and restricting any conclusions from the survey to the respondents only.

Quality of Life Survey (city councils)

The Quality of Life Survey is a partnership between the Auckland, Wellington, Porirua, Hutt, Christchurch, and Dunedin city councils. The survey was first conducted in 2003, repeated in 2004, and then every two years since. The survey measures the perceptions of over 5,000 residents living in most of New Zealand’s major cities.

Aspects of civic and cultural participation the survey measures are: sense of community, impact of cultural diversity, social networks, trust, and cultural richness and diversity in local arts scenes. The samples are area-based, representative of the sponsoring councils. A random selection of residents from the six councils was made from the electoral roll and, applying quota management, respondents were encouraged to complete the survey online or via a hard-copy questionnaire.

The survey has a low response rate: approximately 30 percent.

The New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (University of Auckland)

The New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) is a longitudinal national study of social attitudes, personality, and health outcomes, led by the University of Auckland. The NZAVS aims to track how the personality, attitudes, and values of New Zealanders may be changing over time, and how such changes relate to changes in health and well-being, from 2009 to 2029. The survey includes attitudes towards cultural diversity, social equality, governance, religion, and national identity.

In 2009, the NZAVS sampled a total of 6,518 New Zealanders from the electoral roll, with an overall response rate of 16.6 percent. By 2012, the NZAVS retained 4,051 people from 2009 (meaning the retention rate over three years was 62 percent), and 5,762 people from the previous year (84 percent). Respondents filled in a hard-copy questionnaire or answered the questions online.

Sovereign well-being Survey (Sovereign and Auckland University of Technology)

The Sovereign well-being Survey measures the well-being and quality of life of New Zealanders. It includes measures such as levels of trust and belonging. The core parts of the survey are based on the Personal and Social well-being module of the European Social Survey.

Wave 1 of the survey finished in 2012 and included 9,962 adults aged 18 years and over, randomly selected from an online research panel. Email invitations to complete the web-based survey were sent to 38,439 active panel members (return rate: 32 percent; completion rate: 82 percent).

Public Perceptions of Nationhood and Identity (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, to be confirmed)

The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet is interested in conducting a ‘quick’ survey on public perceptions of nationhood and identity in the near future, and hopes to repeat it over time. The NZGSS team and the Department are working together to make sure our efforts are aligned.

Administrative data
  • The Social Report (Ministry of Social Development) includes a ‘representation of women in government’ indicator, based on the proportion of elected members of parliament (MPs) and local government bodies who are women. Similar indicators for other groups of interest might be developed, such as the representation of minority ethnic groups in government.
  • Other administrative data on social inclusion may include rates of using public services – such as participation in education, and use of health and social services.
  • Because acceptance of diversity and shared identities are about attitudes, no administrative data is available on these topics.

Output stream 2: Civic participation

NZGSS primary content (Statistics NZ)

The NZGSS primary content includes a measure of ‘trust in institutions’, which is captured every survey iteration, and includes trust in the police, the courts, the health system, the education system, the New Zealand Parliament, and the media. Several stakeholders have suggested complementing this existing measure with trust in local government, as a variable that may help explain participation in local democracy.

The 2014 NZGSS also asked about membership of associations, including being a member of a church, religious, or spiritual group. We have not yet confirmed whether this variable will continue to be part of primary content.

Census of Population and Dwellings (Statistics NZ)

The unpaid work question in the census asks whether people have done work for a voluntary organisation in the past four weeks.

Household Labour Force Survey volunteering supplement (Statistics NZ, to be confirmed)

The Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS) is looking to include a ‘periodic topic’ supplement on volunteering, in response to encouragement by the United Nations and the International Labour Organization (ILO) to develop internationally comparable measurements of volunteer work. The ILO worked with the Johns Hopkins University Centre for Civil Society Studies and an international Technical Experts Group to develop a manual on measuring volunteer work, Manual on the Measurement of Volunteer Work, which was released in 2011. The ILO recommends including at least a core set of its question module annually in national labour force surveys.

This core set includes questions on:

  • the number of volunteers
  • the number of hours volunteered
  • the type of work performed (ie occupation)
  • the institutional setting of the work performed, if any
  • the field (industry) in which the volunteer work is performed.

The ILO recommends also collecting data on:

  • respondents’ commitment to and history of volunteering
  • reasons for volunteering
  • how volunteers are recruited
  • social network and demographic predictors of volunteering (including associational membership and church attendance)
  • characteristics of a volunteer’s relationship with the community (including trust in others)
  • relationship between volunteers and donations of money
  • employer support for volunteering
  • barriers to volunteering and reasons for ceasing to volunteer.

A recent discussion paper (Ongley, 2014) on including a volunteer module in the HLFS noted that the existing HLFS supplement programme may not allow the full ILO module to be included annually. However, the paper recommends including it frequently enough that information remains current and that we stay in step with international practice.

If the HLFS includes the core set of questions, the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement could focus on the additional data that the ILO recommended to be collected – in particular those areas that overlap with information needs raised by our stakeholders. These include:

  • reasons for volunteering
  • barriers to volunteering and reasons for ceasing to volunteer
  • social network and demographic predictors of volunteering
  • characteristics of a volunteer’s relationship with the community
  • relationship between volunteers and donations of money.
Quarterly Volunteering and Donating Indicators (Department of Internal Affairs)

The Department of Internal Affairs releases quarterly statistics on volunteering and donating in New Zealand. These include the percentage of people volunteering, average and median hours volunteered, the percentage of people donating money and goods, and average and median dollars donated. The Quarterly Volunteering and Donating Indicators are sourced from the Nielsen Consumer and Media Insights (CMI) survey, which uses a combination of face-to-face interviews and a self-completion diary. The survey uses a representative sample of 3,000 people per quarter, aged 10 years and over, from throughout New Zealand. To date, the volunteering rate from the CMI survey has been comparable to data collected by the NZGSS.

Time Use Survey (Statistics NZ)

The Time Use Survey provides information on how New Zealanders aged 12 years and over spend their time. The survey was conducted in 1998/99 and 2009/10. Time use statistics provide a unique perspective on people’s behaviour, social roles, work-life balance, and social and cultural well-being that is not found in other data sources. This includes time spent on religious, cultural, and civic activities.

Stakeholders have noted that the Time Use Survey often can’t produce accurate outputs for activities that occur infrequently, including many civic and cultural activities. Statistics NZ is considering alternative data collection methods to gather time use data, in line with international practices and to reduce costs. This may cause a break in time series data. One option is to transform the survey into a supplement that can be attached to the NZGSS. This would allow time use data to be analysed with other data on individuals’ well-being. In its current format, the Time Use Survey does not include further well-being information.

Administrative data
  • The Electoral Commission collects data on voter turnout for national and local elections.
  • The Ministry of Justice has statistics on jury service, including the numbers of jurors who turn up to court, those who apply for an exemption or a deferral, those who are granted one, and similar statistics on re-summonses.

Output stream 3: Cultural participation

Household Economic Survey (Statistics NZ)

The Household Economic Survey (HES) includes data on household spending on cultural activities. The Ministry for Culture and Heritage has used HES data to produce several reports on household spending on culture as part of its Cultural Statistics Programme. Household Spending on Culture 2010 showed that New Zealand households spent $2.84 billion on cultural goods and services – an average of $34.70 a week per household – in the year ended June 2007. The two biggest areas of cultural spending were on broadcasting and literature. The Ministry published similar reports in 1996, 2003, and 2006.

Unfortunately, due to changes in output classifications and survey methodology, the Ministry can no longer produce statistics for all their categories of interest.

Time Use Survey (Statistics NZ)

The 1998/99 and 2009/10 surveys collected in-depth data on time spent on cultural activities, including Māori cultural activities, heritage activities (eg visiting museums, art galleries, archives, and historic places), using library services, reading literature, performing arts, watching film and video, watching or listening to broadcasting, and community and government activities (eg religious activities or attending a council meeting).

The Time Use Survey could not always obtain reliable estimates of cultural activities, especially for activities that occur sporadically rather than regularly (eg visiting a museum) and in cases where the number of respondents reporting the activity is too low.

Te Kupenga (Statistics NZ)

Te Kupenga is a rich data source on the social, economic, and cultural well-being of Māori. The survey introduced new measures of cultural well-being based on a Māori perspective in the areas of wairuatanga (spirituality), tikanga (Māori customs and practices), te reo Māori (the Māori language), and whanaungatanga (social connectedness).

The sample is restricted to people of Māori ethnicity and/or descent.

Census of Population and Dwellings (Statistics NZ)

The census collects data on employment in cultural occupations.

Cultural Experiences Survey 2002 (Statistics NZ)

The Cultural Experiences Survey (CES) was conducted by Statistics NZ on behalf of the Ministry of Culture and Heritage. It was based on the New Zealand framework for cultural statistics, which was jointly developed by the Ministry and Statistics NZ in 1995 to improve the quality of information about the cultural sector in New Zealand. The CES was undertaken as a supplement to the Household Labour Force Survey as a one-off survey to address this lack of information. The overall objectives of this survey were to:

  • identify the patterns of the consumption of goods and services of New Zealand's cultural industries
  • determine the typical characteristics associated with particular patterns of cultural consumption in New Zealand
  • identify the barriers to the consumption of cultural products
  • measure the level of interest New Zealanders have in consuming New Zealand cultural goods and services.

However, the survey was only run once, so has no time-series data.

How Important is Culture? (Ministry for Culture and Heritage)

In 1994, 1997, and 2008, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage commissioned research on the public’s perceptions of the importance of culture and cultural activities. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1,000 New Zealand residents aged 18 and over. The Ministry had quotas for gender, age, geographic area, and the Māori ethnic group to make sure the survey sample represented New Zealand residents.

New Zealanders and the Arts, and the Audience Atlas New Zealand (Creative New Zealand)

In 2005, 2008, and 2011, Creative New Zealand conducted the New Zealanders and the Arts survey, to create a benchmark against which to gauge the importance of the arts to New Zealanders. The survey includes data on participation and attendance, attitudes, and audience profiles. They interviewed 2,580 New Zealanders aged 15 years and over, face-to-face (with a 54 percent response rate) and by phone (21 percent response rate). Survey results were weighted to Statistics NZ population counts to make them nationally representative.

In addition, Creative New Zealand started a new survey in 2011, the Audience Atlas, which measures attendance and potential interest for 39 art forms and cultural attractions. This new research will provide arts organisations with market intelligence for developing their audience and marketing programmes and understanding the motivations of current and potential audiences.

Active New Zealand Survey (Sport New Zealand)

The 2007/08 and 2013/14 Active New Zealand Surveys, run by Sport New Zealand, are nationwide surveys that explore sport and recreation participation, intensity of physical activities, club or centre membership, and sport and recreation volunteering among New Zealand adults. Sport NZ run the survey to find out if they’re achieving their goal: to get more people participating and volunteering in sport and recreation.

The Active NZ Survey consists of two data collection methods: a sport and recreation survey, and a seven-day physical activity recall diary. The surveys have collected information about a wide range of physical activity domains, including sport and recreation, active travel, occupational activity, and incidental activities (eg washing the car).

For 2013/14, Sport NZ collected data from 4,443 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, through face-to-face interviews over a 12-month period. The response rate was 61 percent. The data was weighted to be representative of the New Zealand adult population.

Administrative data

Administrative data on cultural participation and the public value of culture may include:

  • attendance patterns and ticket sales
  • donations received by cultural organisations (eg museums).

Civic and cultural participation features in the following government framework and reports:

  • Tier 1 statistics
  • Living Standards Framework
  • Social Report
  • Cultural Indicators for New Zealand
  • NZ Progress Indicators
  • Migration Trends Key Indicators Report

Tier 1 statistics (Statistics NZ)

Table 4 lists Tier 1 statistics (existing and candidates) relevant to the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement. Indicators that fit well with the supplement are: participation in arts, culture and heritage activities, voluntary work, membership of associations, and sense of belonging. Because of their Tier 1 status, these topics will be included in the supplement as high priority information needs.

Table 4
Tier 1 statistics relevant to the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement

Indicator Frequency Producer Current survey collection
Current Tier 1
Languages spoken 5-yearly Statistics NZ Census of Population and Dwellings
Participation in arts, culture and heritage activities 10-yearly Statistics NZ   Proposed NZGSS C&CP supplement
Māori language use 10-yearly Statistics NZ Te Kupenga
Voluntary work 10-yearly Statistics NZ Proposed HLFS and NZGSS C&CP supplements
Time use allocation 10-yearly Statistics NZ Time Use Survey/Explore NZGSS Time Use Supplement
General and local election voter turnout 3-yearly NZ Electoral Commission Not applicable – source is administration data
Classify as Tier 1
Membership of associations 10-yearly (2015/16) Statistics NZ Proposed NZGSS C&CP supplement
Develop for Tier 1 inclusion
Institutional trust 2-yearly (2015/16) Statistics NZ NZGSS primary content
Research for Tier 1 inclusion
Generalised trust 2-yearly (2015/16) Statistics NZ NZGSS primary content
Sense of belonging 10-yearly (2016+) Statistics NZ NZGSS primary content (high level) and proposed NZGSS C&CP supplement (in-depth)
Māori cultural well-being 10-yearly (2014/15) Statistics NZ Te Kupenga

Living Standards Framework (Treasury)

Treasury is collaborating with agencies, including Statistics NZ, to put in place its Living Standards Framework. Cultural and civic participation is particularly relevant to the Social Infrastructure corner of the framework. In August 2014, Treasury ran workshops to define key indicators for the different corners of the framework. Selected indicators for the Social Infrastructure corner included a range of indicators relevant to the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement, including voluntary work, trust in institutions, generalised trust, acceptance of diversity, and sense of belonging.

Social Report (Ministry of Social Development)

The Ministry of Social Development will produce another Social Report in 2015 (expected publication date is July/August). The Social Report uses a set of indicators to monitor social outcomes in New Zealand. The report was first published in 2001, and the most recent report published in 2010.

In its submission, the Ministry noted that the Cultural Identity domain in the Social Report has been relatively weak to date, due to the lack of measures available to report on this area. Unfortunately, the 2016 Civic and Cultural Participation supplement will not be available in time to inform the 2015 Social Report. However, the supplement will help fill existing information needs, and contribute to the Ministry’s ongoing work.

Cultural Indicators for New Zealand (Ministry for Culture and Heritage)

The Cultural Indicators for New Zealand report is designed to measure the extent that the cultural sector is moving towards, or away from, the high-level outcomes identified for the sector. The most recent high-level outcomes include: fostering an inclusive New Zealand identity, supporting Māori cultural aspirations, front-footing transformative technologies, improving cultural asset sustainability, and measuring and maximising the public value of culture. (Note that these outcomes have been updated since publication of the 2006 and 2009 Cultural Indicators.)

The report was first published in 2006 as a joint publication between Statistics NZ and the Ministry. The 2009 report was produced solely by the Ministry, and included a number of new and updated indicators, including: (barriers to) cultural experiences, cultural identity (New Zealanders’ sense of their identity and the heritage and cultures which contribute to it), acceptance of diversity, and the role that participation in arts, culture and heritage events and activities plays in forming social connections.

In its submission, the Ministry notes its commitment to “continuing to report on cultural indicators on a national level and to make available to the public relevant cultural sector statistics that will help us to better understand the cultural sector, how it operates, its status and how it contributes to society over time”. The Ministry is looking to move from a report-based publication format (at three-yearly intervals), to dynamic web-based reporting, with information updated as it comes to hand.

New Zealand Progress Indicators (Statistics NZ)

The New Zealand Progress Indicators provide a snapshot of progress based on 16 indicators across economic, environmental, and social domains. The one progress indicator in the social domain relevant to civic and cultural participation is Speakers of Te Reo Māori, for which the main data source is likely to be the Census of Population and Dwellings, or Te Kupenga.

However, the 16 Progress Indicators build on a wider set of 85 Sustainable Development indicators that were first published in 2008, and updated in 2014. This wider set of indicators includes several additional measures relevant to the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement, such as: unpaid work, voter turnout at general and local elections, and trust in government institutions. Treasury has expressed strong interest in Statistics NZ continuing to update these 85 indicators.

Migration Trends Key Indicators Report (Department of Labour/Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment)

Using Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment data, this half-yearly report describes key indicators for migration trends, including number of people approved for residence, their country of origin, and type of migrant (eg skilled migrant, international student, visitor).

International data sources

When data becomes available from the Civic and Cultural Participation supplement, some stakeholders will be interested in how New Zealand compares internationally. This section covers:

  • measurement of civic and cultural participation by other national statistics agencies
  • international data sources that measure civic and cultural participation.

Measurement of civic and cultural participation by other agencies

Australian Bureau of Statistics

The Australian Bureau of Statistics collects data on culture and leisure in relation to individual well-being (eg the personal health benefits of relaxation and physical activity), and societal progress (eg participation in these activities can enhance community cohesion, and cultural activities are a valuable forum for social examination and debate, and a means of fostering the creativity, innovation, and dialogue necessary for economic development).

Data collection includes an ongoing Survey of Attendance at Selected Cultural Venues and Events, and a 2012 Survey on Children’s Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, conducted as a supplement to the Australian Labour Force Survey.

Statistics Canada

The 2011 Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics “integrates the social and economic aspects of culture. This means that the framework is broad enough to encompass not only the creation, production, dissemination and use of culture products, but also the social and economic impacts arising from this creative chain.” (Statistics Canada, 2011). For the purposes of the framework, culture is defined as “creative artistic activity and the goods and services produced by it, and the preservation of heritage”.

Statistics Canada has published several analytical reports on the topic of civic and cultural participation, including:

  • Patterns of Citizen Participation and the Civic Core in Canada
  • Perceptions of Canadians: A Sense of Belonging and Confidence and Trust
  • Social Engagement and Civic Participation: Are Rural and Small Town Populations Really at an Advantage?
  • Personal Networks and the Economic Adjustment of Immigrants.

Data comes from a variety of sources, including several supplements to the Canadian General Social Survey, a performing arts survey conducted in partnership with the Department of Canadian Heritage, and the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating.

National Statistics Office

The website of the United Kingdom’s National Statistics Office mentions several releases on cultural and civic participation, including: culture and sport, library usage, adults and museums, and data on the creative industries. It also mentions a citizenship survey, which includes topics such as: identity and values, volunteering and charitable giving, and empowered communities.

Data appears to be collected by different government agencies, including the National Statistics Office. The UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport runs the Taking Part survey, which collects data on many aspects of leisure, culture, and sport.

Central Statistics Office Ireland

The Irish Statistics Office runs a Quarterly National Household Survey and a Survey on Income and Living Conditions (the latter is carried out throughout the European Union). Both surveys contain special survey modules that have varied over the years, relating to social participation and relationship networks in local communities.

The 2006 Survey on Income and Living Conditions included a social and cultural participation module. Quarter three of the 2006 Quarterly National Household Survey incorporated a module on social capital, including questions on whether people had taken any actions to solve local problems (eg by contacting the media or a politician, joining an action group, organising a petition, or attending a protest meeting). The report, Community Involvement and Social Networks, published the results from both surveys in 2006. The Quarterly National Household Survey also had a sports and physical exercise supplement in the third quarter of 2006. This survey collected data on participation rates in sport and physical exercise.

International Labour Organization

The inclusion of questions developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) as part of its Manual on the Measurement of Volunteer Work will enable international comparisons with other national statistics agencies that have included the module in their surveys.

International data sources that measure civic and cultural participation

In addition to the work carried out by other national statistics agencies, several large international data sources provide information on civic and cultural participation that may be used to indicate how New Zealand performs within the international context.

Attitudes and values

Both the World Values Survey and the Gallup World Poll collect data on a wide range of attitudes and values, including citizen engagement and attitudes toward governance, tolerance, and social inclusion.

European Social Survey

The European Social Survey is an academically driven cross-national survey conducted every two years across Europe (including the UK). Funded by the European Commission’s Research Infrastructure Consortium, the survey measures the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour patterns of diverse populations in more than thirty nations.

International Social Survey Programme

The International Social Survey Programme is a continuing annual programme of cross-national collaboration on surveys covering key social topics. It brings together pre-existing social science projects and coordinates research goals, thereby adding a cross-national, cross-cultural perspective to the individual national studies. The programme researchers develop questions that are meaningful and relevant to all countries, and can be expressed in an equivalent manner in all relevant languages.

World Giving Index

To assess how New Zealand compares internationally in terms of volunteering and donating money, Volunteering New Zealand makes use of The World Giving Index by the Charities Aid Foundation. The World Giving Index uses data collected by Gallup to provide evidence-based insight into the scope and nature of giving around the world. The index ranks 153 countries according to how charitable their populations are. The study looks at three aspects of giving behaviour of people aged over 15, asking respondents if they have in the past month: donated money to a charity, volunteered time to an organisation, and/or helped a stranger, or someone they didn’t know who needed help.

American National Election Study

The American National Election Study is the leading academically-run national survey of voters in the United States, conducted before and after every presidential election. Since 2005 the survey has been run in partnership with Stanford University. Among academics internationally, the survey is considered the ‘gold standard’ of election studies. As such, it may serve as inspiration for questionnaire development on the topic of political participation.

2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics

The Ministry for Culture and Heritage aims to align collection of statistics on cultural participation with the 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics, where possible, to enable international comparisons. The 2009 framework is the result of a comprehensive four-year global consultation by UNESCO. A large number of individual experts, scholars, statisticians, UNESCO Member States and international organisations contributed to its development. The 2009 framework was designed as a methodology for international and national application. Its main goal is to facilitate international comparisons through a common understanding of culture, and the use of standardised definitions and international economic and social classifications.

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