Stats NZ has a new website.

For new releases go to

www.stats.govt.nz

As we transition to our new site, you'll still find some Stats NZ information here on this archive site.

  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+
What jobs do employed mothers have?

Industry

The following figures are based on annual averages from the HLFS for the June 2014 year.

The distribution of women across industries was much the same regardless of their partner and parent statuses. Two exceptions to this distribution were the health care and social assistance; and retail trade, accommodation, and food services industries. A higher proportion of sole mothers than other women had jobs in both these industries.

Other differences include the education and training industry, where mothers were slightly more likely to work compared with women with no dependent children, and the professional, scientific, technical, administration, and support services industry, where mothers were less likely to work than women with no dependent children.

Figure 13

Graph, Industries women are employed in, by parent status, year ended June 2014, annual averages.

Occupation

The following figures are based on annual averages from the HLFS for the June 2014 year.

The largest proportion of employed women of any family status was in the professional occupation group. The professional group includes occupations such as school teachers, accountants, and lawyers. However, the proportion of sole mothers in this group (23.5 percent) is notably lower than for partnered mothers (31.1 percent) and those with no dependent children (34.3 percent).

A larger proportion of sole mothers than other women were employed in the community and personal services, and labourers occupation groups. The community and personal services group includes occupations such as hospitality workers, child carers, and police. The labourers group includes cleaners, food process workers, and construction labourers.

Figure 14

Graph, Occupations women are employed in, by parent status, year ended June 2014, annual averages.

Partnered mothers and women without children had similar occupational distributions. The two groups did not vary by more than 4 percentage points.

Employment relationship

The following figures are based on data from the 2012 SoWL. Unpaid family workers and those who did not specify their employment relationship are excluded from this section.

Figure 15

Graph, Employment relationship of women, by parent status, December 2012 quarter.

Temporary employees (those employees whose job lasts for a limited time or until a project is completed) made up a higher proportion of working sole mothers than other women.

This difference was confirmed with an odds ratio analysis. The lower the odds ratio estimate, the lower the odds of being a temporary employee compared with the odds for the target group. An odds ratio estimate of 1 – or a 95 percent confidence interval range including 1 – indicates no difference in odds between the two groups. For example, the first row of table 3 shows that partnered mothers have lower odds than sole mothers of being temporary employees, as the estimate is lower than 1, and the confidence interval does not include 1. The significance of the difference in odds is shown by the p value.

Table 3
Odds ratio estimates for temporary employee status

By parent status

Parent status

Estimate

95 percent confidence interval

p value

Partnered mothers vs sole mothers

0.59

0.41

0.85

<0.01

Women with no dependants vs sole mothers

0.57

0.37

0.87

<0.01

The higher proportion of sole mothers who were temporary employees is not easily explained by differences in highest qualification or industry. However, women who were labourers made up over one-fifth of the temporary employees, and employed sole mothers were almost twice as likely to have been labourers as other women.

Mothers of younger children were more likely than mothers of older children to have been temporary employees. Sole mothers with a youngest child aged under five years were twice as likely to have been temporary employees as those with a youngest child who was 14 or over (21.2 percent versus 8.9 percent). The same pattern was seen for partnered mothers – 11.1 percent were temporary employees when their child was aged under five, compared with 4.7 percent when their child was aged 14 or over.

As shown in figure 15, partnered mothers were more likely to fall into the employer/self-employed category (13.4 percent) than sole mothers and women with no dependants (8.3 percent and 8.5 percent, respectively).

This difference was also confirmed with an odds ratio analysis, shown in table 4.

Table 4
Odds ratio estimates for employer/self-employed status

By parent status

Parent status

Estimate

95 percent confidence interval

p value

Sole mothers vs partnered mothers

0.58

0.35

0.95

<0.05

Women with no dependants vs partnered mothers

0.60

0.45

0.79

<0.01

  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+
Top
  • Share this page to Facebook
  • Share this page to Twitter
  • Share this page to Google+