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Glossary

A

Absentee: is a person who is identified on the census dwelling form as a usual resident of that dwelling, but who did not complete a census individual form at that dwelling on census night because they were elsewhere in New Zealand or overseas. For example, children away at boarding school, people away on holiday, away for work or in hospital for a short time should be counted as absentees by the person filling out the census dwelling form. Tertiary students living somewhere else for most of the year should not be counted as they are classed as usually living elsewhere.

Since this information is provided by the person filling out the census dwelling form (the reference person), it is possible that one or more of the absentees listed on any dwelling form may, themselves, fill out an individual form at another dwelling. This individual may or may not identify themselves on their census individual form as usually living at the address at which they were listed as an absentee. Absentee statistics concerning households and families are based on information from census dwelling forms; usual residence statistics are based on individual census forms. See also: Usual residence

Certain variables, such as ethnicity, are not collected for absentees (on the dwelling form), and therefore they are excluded from some indicator tables. Tables counting usual residents include absentees unless there is a footnote to indicate otherwise.

Adult Child: see Child(ren) in a family nucleus.

Age: the length of time a person has been alive measured in compete, elapsed years. It is measured as the difference between ‘date of birth’ and ‘data collection date’.

Alterations and additions: to pre-existing dwellings include adding a room or altering layout but excluding the building of new dwellings.

Area units: aggregations of meshblocks. They are non-administrative areas intermediate between meshblocks and territorial authorities. Area units must either define or aggregate to define urban areas, rural centres, statistical areas, territorial authorities and regional councils. Each area unit must be a single geographic entity with a unique name. Area units of main or secondary urban areas generally coincide with suburbs or parts thereof. Area units within urban areas normally contain 3,000-5,000 people.

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B

Bedroom: a room in a dwelling that is used, or intended for sleeping in. The following rules apply:

A room is considered to be a bedroom if it is furnished as a bedroom, even if it is not being used at the time of the data collection. A room furnished as a bedroom should include a sleeping facility such as a bed or mattress, and "could" include items such as a dresser and chest of drawers.

Room equivalents should not be counted for one-roomed dwellings (such as a bed-sitting room). A one-roomed dwelling should be counted as having one bedroom and therefore one total room.

A sleep-out adjacent to a private dwelling should be counted as a bedroom if it is used and/or furnished as a bedroom and is occupied by members of the same household as those who occupy the dwelling.

A caravan adjacent to a private dwelling should be counted as a bedroom only if it is used as a bedroom and is occupied by members of the same household as those who occupy the dwelling.

A room (such as a living room) that is used as a bedroom at night, either short-term or long-term, should not be counted as a bedroom unless the only bedroom facilities in the dwelling are in that room. If the only bedroom facilities in a dwelling are in a room that is also used for another purpose (such as in a living room), this room should be counted as a bedroom.

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C

Child(ren) in a family nucleus: for the purposes of the Family Type classification, only 'children in a family nucleus' are counted as children. To be a 'child in a family nucleus', a person must have usual residence with at least one parent, and have no partner of child(ren) of their own living in the same household. Note that 'child(ren) in a family nucleus' can be a person of any age.

For the purposes of the standard classification for Child Dependency Status, ‘child(ren) in a family nucleus’ are divided into two sub-groups: Dependent Child(ren) and Adult Child(ren). A dependent child is a ‘child in a family nucleus’ who is less than 18 years old and who is not employed full-time. An adult child is a ‘child in a family nucleus’ who is employed full-time or who is aged 18 years or over. See also: Family nucleus.

Couple: Two people who usually reside together and are legally married, or two people who are in a consensual union. There are three types of couples: opposite-sex, male and female.

Crowding: relates to situations where the number of people residing in a household exceeds the capacity of the household to provide adequate shelter and services to its members.

A crowding indicator will be created using the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, developed by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The Canadian model provides a measure of bedroom occupancy in a dwelling, which can be related to personal and household characteristics.

In the Canadian model, households are considered overcrowded when the following standard cannot be met:

  • no more than two persons per bedroom
  • children of different sex, aged less than five years, may reasonably share a bedroom
  • children of different sex, aged five years or older, should not share a bedroom
  • children aged less than 18 years and of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom
  • household members 18 years or over should have a separate bedroom, as should parents or couples.

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D

Dependent Child: A child in a family nucleus who is under the age of 18 and not employed full time. To be a 'child in a family nucleus', a person must have usual residence with at least one parent, and have no partner or child(ren) of their own living in the same household. People under 15 not living with their parents are put into family nuclei and coded as children (in 1996 this was done for people under 18 in this situation). See also: Children in a family nucleus.

Dwelling: any building or structure, or part thereof, that is used (or intended to be used) for the purpose of human habitation. It can be of a permanent, temporary or even mobile nature and includes structures such as motels, hotels, hospitals, prisons, motor homes, huts, and tents. At the highest level, dwellings are classified as private or non-private.

The following parameters apply:

A private dwelling may be permanent or temporary.

Permanent private dwellings include houses and flats; residences attached to a business or institution; baches, cribs and huts.

Temporary private dwellings are classified as caravans, cabins tents and other makeshift dwellings that are the principal or usual residence of households.

All other dwellings, used for human habitation (or intended to be used), are non-private and are available to the public. They may be available for use generally, or by virtue of occupation or study. These include dwellings for people with special needs, or legal requirements, for example prisons. Such dwellings may have facilities (such as a dining room) that are for shared use.

See also: Occupied dwelling | Unoccupied dwelling | Visitor-only private dwelling | Permanent building

Dwellings With Residents Away: A type of unoccupied dwelling with usual residents that are known to be away at the time of data of collection.

Dwellings Under Construction: Unoccupied dwellings in the process of being built. Unoccupied but existing dwellings in the process of being altered, repaired or extended are classified as empty dwellings.

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E

Economic unit: an individual economic unit within a household, for instance when more than one family lives in a household and they share household expenses.

Empty Dwellings: Unoccupied dwellings that clearly have no current occupants and new occupants are not expected to move in on or before the date of the data collection. Unoccupied dwellings being repaired or renovated are defined as empty dwellings. Unoccupied baches or holiday homes are also defined as empty dwellings. See also: Dwellings under construction.

Ethnicity: the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Thus, ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

An ethnic group is defined as a social group whose members have the following four characteristics:

  • share a sense of common origins
  • claim a common and distinctive history and destiny possess one or more dimensions of collective cultural individuality
  • feel a sense of unique collective solidarity

Note: Because it is extremely difficult to define ‘ethnicity of household’ when ethnic variables have been used, these are defined by the ethnicity of the reference person.

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F

Familial Relationship: The relationship between people who are related to one another by blood, registered marriage, consensual union, fostering, or adoption. See also: Non-familial relationship.

Family or Family Nucleus: a couple, with or without child(ren), or one parent and their child(ren), all of whom have usual residence together in the same household. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the household. See also: Children in a family nucleus.

Family Type: is a derived variable that classifies family nuclei according to the presence of absence of couples, parents and children. See also: Children in a family nucleus.

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G

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H

Household: one person who usually resides alone or two or more people who usually reside together and share facilities (such as eating facilities, cooking facilities, bathroom and toilet facilities, a living area).

Household composition: a derived variable that classifies all households according to the relationships between usually resident people. Households are classified according to the presence, number and type of family nuclei and the presence of related and unrelated people.

At its highest level household composition consists of one of the following:

  • one-family household
  • two-family household
  • three or more family household
  • other multi-person household
  • one person household
  • household composition unidentifiable.

Household composition can be defined at two further levels (medium and lowest level household composition).

Housing stock: all occupied dwellings (private and non-private), unoccupied dwellings and dwellings under construction.

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I

Income (household, gross): income received, before tax, by all household members aged 15 years and over for a financial year from all sources, for example wages, salary, social welfare payments, interest, dividends, commission, pre-tax business or farming income (less expenses). Note: these indicators use gross income.

Income (personal, gross): income, before tax, which a person aged 15 years and over receives for a financial year from all sources, for example wages, salary, social welfare payments, interest, dividends, commission, pre-tax business or farming income (less expenses). Note: these indicators use gross income.

Income (personal, net): income after tax, which a person aged 15 years and over receives for a financial year from all sources, for example wages, salary, social welfare payments, interest, dividends, commission, pre-tax business or farming income (less expenses). Note: these indicators use gross income.

Income sources: can be broadly grouped as income from employment, from own business, ownership of assets (rent, interest and dividends), current transfers from Government (pensions or benefits), private current transfers such as superannuation, and capital income (lump-sum receipts such as gain/loss on the sale of durables). All non-life insurance claims are current income. Tax credits, reimbursements of expenses incurred, money received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings, and receiving repayments of loan principal are excluded.

Income quintiles: divide an income distribution into five equally sized groups, each containing 20 percent of the population, grouped by income. The first (or bottom) quintile group consists of the population with the lowest incomes and the fifth (or top) quintile group consists of the population with the highest incomes.

Insurance on a dwelling: a payment made to an insurance company in return for a promise to replace or repair the dwelling in the event of non-intentional damage to the dwelling. It is a means of reducing the financial risk of unforeseen accidental loss or damage to the dwelling. For many mortgage holders, insurance is a requirement of the mortgage contract.

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J

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K

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L

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M

Main urban area: see under Urban area

Maintenance costs: ongoing costs for maintaining the condition of the dwelling, such as fixing roof leaks, mending rotten floor boards, fighting rising damp and borer, and general garden maintenance. Renovation involves repair and restoration of homes to their past condition, often including structural modification. Renovation is generally a more complex, time consuming and expensive undertaking than simply maintaining the current condition of a dwelling through ongoing repair.

Median age: represents the mid-point, whereby half the population is older and half younger than this age.

Meshblock: the smallest geographic unit for which statistical data is collected and processed by Statistics New Zealand. A meshblock is a defined geographic area, varying in size from part of a city block to large areas of rural land. Each meshblock abuts against another to form a network covering all of New Zealand including coasts and inlets, and extending out to the two hundred-mile economic zone. Meshblocks are added together to ‘build up’ larger geographic areas such as area units and urban areas. They are also the principal unit used to draw-up and define electoral district and local authority boundaries.

Minor urban area: see under Urban area

Mortgage: an interest in a property created as a form of security for a loan or payment of a debt and terminated on payment of the loan or debt. Principal payments are payments that reduce the amount initially borrowed. Interest payments are payments that cover the interest charged on the loan.

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N

Non-familial Relationship: The relationship between people who are not related to one another by blood, registered marriage, consensual union, fostering or adoption. See also: Familial relationship.

Number of years since arrival in New Zealand: the length of time in completed years (including any intervening absences, whether temporary or long-term) since a respondent who was born outside of New Zealand first arrived to live in New Zealand as a permanent or long-term resident.

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O

Occupancy Rate: the total number of occupants usually resident in private dwellings divided by the total number of occupied private dwellings.

Occupied dwelling: a dwelling is defined for the Census of Population and Dwellings use, as occupied if it is;

  • occupied at midnight on the night of the data collection; or
  • occupied at any time during the twelve hours following midnight on the night of the data collection unless the occupant(s) completed a questionnaire at another dwelling during this period.

A dwelling is defined for all other surveys, as occupied if it is;

  • occupied during the period of data collection.

See also: Unoccupied dwelling and Usual residence.

Outbuildings: stand-alone domestic buildings that are not intended for habitation such as garages and garden sheds.

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P

Parent: The mother, father (natural, step, adopted or foster), or ‘person in a parent role’ of a ‘child in a family nucleus’. A ‘person in a parent role’ is a person who is not a mother or father (natural, step, adopted or foster) of the young person (as defined by the survey) but who nevertheless usually resides with that young person. The young person does not have a partner or child of their own and does not usually reside with their mother or father -natural, step, adopted or foster. Ideally, a person in a parent role can be considered a parent according to current social norms regarding parenting. See also: Children in a family nucleus

Partner: A person with whom another person is a) in a registered marriage or b) in a consensual union.

Permanent building: is a building that was constructed to be structurally stable for at least ten years. See also: Dwelling

Private sector rental: is a dwelling rented from a person, private trust, business, real estate agency or other private institution. See also: State sector rental

Property rates: levied by city and district councils as a tax on property. A portion of the rate is levied on capital values of the property (land and building). Rates are used to fund council activities and services such as water, sewerage and waste disposal.

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Q

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R

Reference person: the person who takes responsibility for completing the dwelling form for the household in the Census of Population and Dwellings. The reference person is not necessarily the person who owns or rents the dwelling.

Regional council: the Local Government Commission established regional councils in 1989. Regional councils cover every territorial authority in New Zealand with the exception of the Chatham Islands District. The geographical boundaries of regions conform as far as possible to one or more water catchments. In determining regions, consideration was also given to regional communities of interest, natural resource management, land use planning, and environmental matters.

Room: a space in a dwelling, which is used, or intended for habitation, and is enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering. Service areas are excluded.

The total number of rooms includes: habitable spaces such as bedrooms, kitchens, dining rooms, living rooms, lounge rooms, studies, games rooms, studios, hobby rooms, habitable cellars and attics.

The total number of rooms does not include service areas such as: pantries, hallways, spa-rooms, walk-in wardrobes, corridors, verandahs, garages, laundries, toilets and bathrooms should not be counted as rooms for the purpose of this standard.

If a dwelling is built in an open-plan style, then room equivalents should be counted as if they had walls between them. Room equivalents should not be counted for one-roomed dwellings (such as bed-sitting rooms).

A one-roomed dwelling should be counted as having one room only.

Ideally, habitable rooms should be: at least two metres in height and of at least four square metres in area. However, due to operational difficulties outlined below this is not a critical requirement of this standard. Service areas are excluded from the count of rooms even if they meet the criteria concerning walls and floor space.

Rural centres: are defined in the urban area field. Rural centres were established during the 1989 Review of Geostatistical Boundaries. Rural centres have no administrative or legal status but are statistical units defined by complete area units. They have a population between 300 and 999. These are not termed urban under standard international definition but identifying these settlements enables users to distinguish between rural dwellers living in true rural areas and those living in rural settlements or townships.

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S

Secondary urban area: see under Urban area

Sector of landlord: the ownership of a rented dwelling. The Classification for Ownership of a Dwelling includes: private person, private trust, local authority or city council, Housing New Zealand, other state-owned corporation or state-owned enterprise or government department or ministry, business or other organisation.

Sex: the distinction between males and females based on the biological differences in sexual characteristics.

State sector rental: is a dwelling rented from Housing New Zealand Corporation or another central government agency, local authorities or city councils. See also: Private sector rental

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T

Temporary private dwelling: see under dwelling

Tenure holder: Refers to whether a New Zealand adult owns or partly owns the dwelling that they usually live in.

Tenure of household: refers to the nature of the occupancy of a private household in a dwelling, at the time of the survey. Tenure of household seeks to ascertain if the household rents or owns the dwelling and whether payment is made by the household for that right. It does not refer to the tenure of the land on which the dwelling is situated.

Territorial authority boundaries: defined by aggregations of area units. When defining the boundaries of territorial authorities, the Local Government Commission placed considerable weight on the ‘community of interest’. While the size of the community was a factor, the relevance of the components of the community to each other, and the capacity of the unit to service the community in an efficient manner were the factors on which the commission placed most emphasis.

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U

Unoccupied Dwelling: is any dwelling that is unoccupied at all times during the 12 hours following midnight on the night of the census. Dwelling questionnaries are not completed for these dwellings. Unoccupied dwellings include dwellings where residents are away, empty dwellings and dwellings under construction. Dilapidated dwellings are not coded as occupied or unoccupied unless they are inhabitied. See also Occupied dwelling and Usual residence

Unrelated People: People who have a non-familial relationship.

Urban areas: are statistically defined areas with no administrative or legal basis. There is a three part hierarchical sub-division of urban areas into:

  • Main urban areas: are very large urban areas centred on a city or major urban centre. Main urban areas have a minimum population of 30,000. Urban areas in the main conurbations have been divided into urban zones and each zone is defined as if it were a separate urban area.
  • Secondary urban areas: were established at the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings. They have a population between 10,000 and 29,999 and are centred on the larger regional centres.
  • Minor urban areas: the remainder of the statistically defined urbanised population of New Zealand. Minor urban areas are urbanised settlements (outside main and secondary urban areas), centred around smaller towns with a population between 1,000 and 9,999.

Together the populations in main, secondary and minor urban areas comprise the statistically defined urban population of New Zealand. The urban area classification is designed to identify concentrated urban or semi-urban settlements without the distortions of administrative boundaries. Rural centres are also defined in the urban area field. Urban populations are defined internationally as towns with 1,000 people or more.

Usual residence: the address of the dwelling where a person considers himself or herself to usually reside, except in the specific cases listed below:

  • People who board at another residence to attend primary or secondary school, and return to the home of their parent(s) or guardian(s) for the holidays, and who usually reside at the address of their parent(s) or guardian(s). Post-secondary students usually reside at the address where they live while studying.
  • Children in joint custody usually reside at the place where they spend more nights, or if they spend equal amounts of time at each residence, they usually reside at the place where they are at the time of the survey.
  • People who are in rest homes, hospitals, prisons or other institutions, usually reside where they consider themselves to live, and this may include the institution.
  • A person whose home is on any ship, boat or vessel permanently located in any harbour shall be deemed to usually reside at the wharf or landing place (or main wharf or landing place) of the harbour.
  • A person from another country who has lived, or intends to live, in New Zealand for 12 months or more usually resides at his or her address in New Zealand.
    People of no fixed abode have no usual residence.
  • People who spend equal amounts of time residing at different addresses, and can not decide which address is their usual residence, usually reside at the address they were surveyed at.

If none of the above guidelines apply, the person usually resides at the address he or she was surveyed at. See also: Absentee

Usual residence five years ago: the usual residence of a respondent five years prior to the date that the data is collected.

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V

Visitor-only private dwelling: A private dwelling in which there were no usual residents on census night.

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W

Weekly rent paid by households: the total weekly monetary amount spent by the household on obtaining shelter in a private dwelling. Ideally, the weekly rent paid should exclude payments for the use of furniture and utilities such as electricity, gas and water and for the provision of special services like washing, cooking etc. However, due to operational difficulties this standard makes no distinction between rent paid for a furnished or unfurnished dwelling.

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X

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Y

Years at usual residence: the length of time up to the date of the data collection, expressed in completed years (including short-term absences, but excluding long-term absences), that a respondent has lived at their usual residence.

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Z

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