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Te Kupenga 2013 (English) – corrected
Embargoed until 10:45am  –  06 May 2014
Definitions

Tirohia tēnei whārangi i te reo Māori 

About Te Kupenga

Te Kupenga is Statistics NZ’s first survey of Māori well-being. The survey gives an overall picture of the social, cultural, and economic well-being of Māori in New Zealand. Along with general social and economic well-being measures, Te Kupenga provides information from a Māori cultural perspective. This includes information about the well-being of the Māori language.

More definitions

Here are the definitions of the main measures and terms included in this release.

Ancestral marae: a marae or gathering place that the respondent feels connected to because that is where their parents, grandparents, or ancestors are from. Respondents were asked if they had been to any of their ancestral marae.

Connection to tūrangawaewae: respondents who knew their ancestral marae and thought of this as their tūrangawaewae were asked how connected they felt to their tūrangawaewae. Respondents who knew their ancestral marae were also asked about visits to that marae.

Tūrangawaewae – a Māori concept of belonging to a place, where one can stand and feel they are home. It is a place of cultural significance where you feel you belong because your people are from there. Other terms Māori use are papa kāinga or wā kāinga but the notion is the same – it is a place that someone feels a sense of connection to.

Contact with whānau: measures social connectedness. It refers to face-to-face contact with whānau in another household. Face-to-face contact does not include electronic contact, such as using a web cam or video conferencing. The survey also measured non-face-to-face contact, such as by phone (calling, texting, video calling), Internet (email, instant messenger, chat rooms, web camera, Skype), and postal mail.

Cultural support: how easy or hard it would be for a respondent to find someone to help them with Māori cultural practices, such as going to a tangi, speaking at a hui, or blessing a taonga. Respondents could choose from:

  • very easy
  • easy
  • sometimes easy, sometimes hard
  • hard
  • very hard.

Māori: are defined, for the purposes of Te Kupenga, as individuals who identify themselves with Māori ethnicity or Māori descent.

Ethnicity – the ethnic group or groups a person identifies with or feels they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality, or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

See New Zealand Standard Classification of Ethnicity 2005 for more information.

Māori descent – a person has Māori descent if they are of the Māori race of New Zealand; this includes any descendant of such a person.

See Māori Descent – Standard Classification for more information.

Marae: an ancient institution from Polynesia that endures within Māori culture. There are marae all around the Pacific, from the Cook Islands to Tahiti and the Marquesas. Many of these were ancient altars that only the high priests were allowed to attend to. However, in Aotearoa New Zealand, the marae is the gathering place of all the people. It hosts ceremonies for all – celebrations, and farewells or tangihanga. The marae has developed over time, with schools, urban community groups, churches, and even the national museum establishing non-kin-based and Māori-centred places to gather and meet. Respondents were asked if they had been to any marae.

Pepeha/tribal identity: a statement of Māori tribal identity in which you identify, via a pithy or meaningful saying, your tribe, mountain, river/lake, and the name of your marae, sub-tribe/hapū, and waka. The pepeha is an oral way to connect and join people to people, places, and spaces. It is how someone introduces themselves in Māori. Respondents were asked if they knew their tribe, subtribe, mountain, canoe, river, and ancestor, or all of these.

Region: based on regional council areas, and grouped where necessary for analysis.

 Comparing Te Kupenga regional groupings with regional council areas
 Te Kupenga grouping  Regional council area
 Northland  Northland
 Auckland  Auckland
 Waikato  Waikato
 Bay of Plenty  Bay of Plenty
 Gisborne/Hawke’s Bay  Gisborne
   Hawke’s Bay
 Taranaki/Manawatū-Whanganui  Taranaki
   Manawatū-Whanganui
 Wellington  Wellington
 Canterbury  Canterbury
 Rest of the South Island  West Coast
   Otago
   Southland
   Tasman
   Nelson
   Marlborough

Te reo Māori proficiency: the respondent’s self-assessed ability to speak, understand, read, and write in te reo Māori. These questions were used in Te Kupenga to provide comparability with the 2001 Survey on the Health of the Māori Language. Respondents placed themselves into one of five categories, for four questions:

How well are you able to speak Māori in day-to-day conversation?

  1. very well (I can talk about almost anything in Māori)
  2. well (I can talk about many things in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can talk about some things in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only talk about simple/basic things in Māori)
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.

How well are you able to understand spoken Māori?

  1. very well (I can understand almost anything said in Māori)
  2. well (I can understand many things said in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can understand some things said in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only understand simple/basic things said in Māori)
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.

How well are you able to read Māori, with understanding?

  1. very well (I can read almost anything in Māori)
  2. well (I can read many things in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can read some things in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only read simple/basic things in Māori)
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.

How well are you able to write in Māori, with understanding?

  1. very well (I can write almost anything in Māori)
  2. well (I can write many things in Māori)
  3. fairly well (I can write some things in Māori)
  4. not very well (I can only write simple/basic things in Māori)
  5. no more than a few words or phrases.

Te reo usage: respondents who rated their ability to speak te reo Māori between 1 and 4 were asked more detailed questions about the environments in which they used te reo Māori. Those who rated their ability as ‘no more than a few words or phrases’ were not asked these detailed questions.

Respondents were asked about their te reo Māori usage both inside and outside the home. Respondents could choose from:

  • no Māori
  • some Māori
  • Māori equally with English (or another language)
  • mostly Māori
  • all Māori.

Whakapapa: a Māori term for genealogy or family history.

Whānau well-being: a self-reported measure. Respondents were asked how their whānau was doing, in general. They answered on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is ‘extremely badly’ and 10 is ‘extremely well’. For this release these responses were grouped as follows:

  • extremely well (10)
  • well (6–9)
  • neither well nor badly (5)
  • badly (1–4)
  • extremely badly (0).

See the Te Kupenga data dictionary for a full list of variables used in the survey.

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