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Technical notes and limitations of the data

Accommodation Survey (CAS)

About the Accommodation Survey

The Accommodation Survey is a monthly survey that provides information about short-term commercial accommodation activity at national, regional, and lower levels. Statistics NZ runs the survey, which is sponsored by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

We used any establishment that appears in our full list of Māori authorities or enterprises and is surveyed in the Accommodation Survey.

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Average length of stay: calculated by dividing the number of guest nights by the number of guest arrivals.

Capacity (stay-unit): equivalent to one unit of accommodation available to be charged-out to guests, e.g. a hotel room, a motel unit, a backpacker bed, or a tent site or cabin at a holiday park.

Domestic guest night: equivalent to one New Zealand resident spending one night at an establishment.

Establishment: smallest statistical unit operating within a single physical location and owned by a single enterprise. The term is used to represent what is usually called the 'geographic unit' in other Statistics NZ publications.

Guest night: equivalent to one guest spending one night at an establishment. (A motel, for example, with 15 guests spending two nights would report that they had provided 30 guest nights.)

International guest night: equivalent to one foreign guest spending one night at an establishment.

Occupancy rate: calculated as the average daily percentage of stay-units occupied. For example, if a motel had 5 of its 10 units occupied every night in April, it would have 5 x 30 = 150 stay-unit-nights occupied out of 10 x 30 = 300 stay-unit-nights available. Its occupancy rate would be 150 divided by 300 (50 percent).

Stay unit: unit of accommodation that is available to be charged out to guests (such as a room in a hotel or motel, a bed in a backpacker establishment, or a site in a caravan park).

Reference period

The Accommodation Survey is an ongoing monthly collection. In this report we used year to March 31 where an annual summary was called for.

Limitations to the data

The Accommodation Survey is for short-term commercial accommodation and includes hotels, motels, backpacker accommodation, and holiday parks. Private accommodation is excluded. The survey aims for 100 percent coverage of the above accommodation types (a full census), but in practice the overall response rate is usually between 76 and 80 percent. The list of Māori businesses used to generate these estimates may be over- or under-represented in non-responses, and that may vary from year to year. Where there are non-responses, the missing data is replaced with imputed figures based on movements from similar establishments in the same or nearby areas.

Other errors include respondent error, and errors in coverage, classification, and processing. While every effort is made to minimise these errors, they will still occur. It is not possible to quantify their effect.

More information on DataInfo+

Accommodation Survey (2013 to current) – DataInfo+ 
Metadata and general information.

Accommodation, Concept sets – DataInfo+ 
Definitions.

Agriculture Production Survey (APS)

About the Agriculture Production Survey

With the exception of 2007 and 2012, comparable surveys of agriculture production surveys have been run in every year from 2003 to 2015. We used results from the Agriculture Production Survey in Tatauranga Umanga Māori 2016 in preference to the 2007 and 2012 agriculture censuses, to provide a better sense of changes in response to various conditions including prices paid out.

The agricultural production surveys include all units identified on Statistics NZ's Business Register as having agricultural activity:

  • businesses engaged in 'agricultural production activity' (including livestock, cropping, horticulture, and forestry), or which own land intended for agricultural activity, and
  • businesses engaged in agriculture or forestry production as a secondary activity.

The Business Register is a list of businesses in New Zealand, based on their registration for goods and services tax (GST) with Inland Revenue. The compulsory registration level for GST is $60,000, so there is a partial and unquantifiable coverage of units below this level.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

We used any establishment that appears in our full list of Māori authorities or enterprises and is surveyed in the Agriculture Production Survey.

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Dairy milking herd: Milk-producing cows and heifers, which includes all cows and heifers either in milk or in calf.

Flock: A group of sheep, angora or feral goats, or poultry.

Head: A general term used for numbering any four-legged stock.

Herd: A group of cattle, horses, or milking goats (or pigs and deer).

Lamb: A sheep under 12 months of age, or without any permanent teeth in wear.

Lambs tailed: Includes lambs marked.

Reference period

The Agriculture Production Survey has a collection date of June 30, while some questions refer to work done over the full year to 30 June.

Limitations of the data

Changes to the data collected over the survey years is noted in the full technical documentation on Datainfo+. The list of Māori farms used to generate these estimates may be over- or under-represented in non-responses, and that may vary from year to year.

Other errors include respondent error, and errors in coverage, classification, and processing. While every effort is made to minimise these errors, they will still occur. It is not possible to quantify their effect.

More information on DataInfo+

Agriculture Production surveys and Censuses – DataInfo+ 
Metadata and further information on changes to data collected.

Agriculture Production Concepts – DataInfo+ 
Definitions.

Annual Enterprise Survey (AES)

About the Annual Enterprise Survey

The Annual Enterprise Survey provides statistics on the financial performance and financial position of New Zealand businesses, covering most areas of economic activity. The survey was designed as the principal collection vehicle of data used in the compilation of New Zealand's national accounts. Data used in this survey is compiled from a number of sources and measures industry levels for a given year.

In addition to its use in the national accounts, Annual Enterprise Survey (AES) is also a data source for other Statistics NZ existing and upcoming outputs, including:

  • industry benchmarking
  • longitudinal Research of Business Dynamics project (see Longitudinal business database, Statistics NZ, 2016)
  • business price indexes.

Over the past few years, we have conducted more research around inputs and outputs as a result of requests from customers for non-standard outputs, for example requests:

  • from other government departments, such as the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
  • for data/information by turnover bands, which can add significant analytical value and is a popular request
  • from businesses for financial data to gauge their performance against industry averages.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

Only our list of Māori authorities returned enough responses to provide comparable time-series. We used any establishment that appears in our full list of Māori authorities and is surveyed in the annual enterprise survey.

Reference period

Annual, with a notional end-date of September 30. Each year captures financial records of each enterprise referring to a balance date of that enterprise falling within the year. For example the latest period, 2014, collects information from across 1/10/2013 to 30/09/2014.

Coverage

AES does not have complete coverage but as a sample achieves excellent coverage by utilising administrative data. The approximate degree of coverage of Māori authorities, SMEs, and tourism businesses is 70 percent.

Limitations of the data

In AES2013, we increased the sample to include more Māori authorities, which allowed us to analyse and produce Māori authority statistics at an industry level. This does not apply to Māori SMEs or tourism businesses so there is a severe limit to what we can estimate about them.

More information on DataInfo+

Annual Enterprise Survey, abstract usage and limitations – DataInfo+ 
Metadata and general information.

Annual Enterprise Survey, concepts – DataInfo+
Definitions. 

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Business Demography Statistics (BD)

About Business Demography Statistics

Business demography statistics provide an annual snapshot as at February, of the structure and characteristics of New Zealand businesses. Statistics produced include counts of enterprises and geographic units by industry, region, institutional sector, business type, degree of overseas ownership, enterprise births, enterprise deaths, survival rate of enterprises, and employment levels. The series covers economically significant private-sector and public-sector enterprises engaged in the production of goods and services in New Zealand.

The business demography series in Tatauranga Umanga Māori 2016: Statistics on Māori businesses are based on the Statistics New Zealand Longitudinal Business Frame (LBF), which is created from the Statistics New Zealand Business Register (BR).

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

We extracted enterprises and employee count by industry (ANZSIC06) statistics for two separate lists, Māori authorities and Māori SMEs.

Thanks to the comprehensive nature of the LBF, we were able to count economically non-significant enterprises for measures like survival rates.

The BD statistics coverage is limited to economically significant enterprises only.

See Business Demographic Statistics Review Report (Statistics NZ, 2006) for the processes we use to identify continuing businesses on the LBF (longitudinal links).

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Industry: ANZSIC06: Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006. A business is normally assigned to an ANZSIC06 category according to the predominant activity it is engaged in. ANZSIC06 is a hierarchical classification with four levels: division, subdivision, group, and class.

Birth: occurs when a new enterprise starts operation (ie a combination of production factors is created, and no other national businesses are involved). Births do not include entries into the population due to reactivations, mergers, break-ups, split-offs, or other restructuring of a group of businesses linked by ownership or control.

Death: occurs when an enterprise ceases operation (ie a combination of production factors is dissolved, and no other domestic businesses are involved). Deaths do not include exits from the population due to temporary inactivity, mergers, takeovers, break-ups, or other restructuring of a group of businesses linked by ownership or control.

Employees or employee count (EC): refers to paid employees. It is a head count of salary and wage earners sourced from taxation data. EC data is available on a monthly basis. The EC used for deriving business demography statistics is for the February month.

Enterprise: an institutional unit that generally corresponds to legal entities operating in New Zealand. It can be a company, partnership, trust, estate, incorporated society, producer board, local or central government organisation, voluntary organisation, or self-employed individual.

Survival rate: calculated as the percentage of births in each reference period that survive into future reference periods in the business demography population (surviving births divided by total births for a particular reference period). To be considered a survivor, the birthed enterprise must have existed at every reference period between its birth year and the given reference period.

Reference period

As at February.

Usage and limitations of the data

Data limitations associated with business demography data include:

  • non-coverage of 'small' enterprises that fall below the economic significance criteria
  • partial coverage of enterprises in the gap between the BF economic significance condition ($30,000 of sales subject to GST) and the compulsory GST registration threshold ($60,000 from 1 April 2009). We can’t quantify our partial coverage, but some businesses register for GST when their activity is below the threshold
  • residential property operators industry (ANZSIC06, class L6711) contains only partial coverage (analyse with care)
  • lags exist in recording enterprise births and deaths
  • our published time series is revised each year as we incorporate the latest LBF data. Revisions of any significance mainly affect the end points of the series non-availability of overseas ownership information for some BF units 
  • information on enterprise ownership links (needed to identify BF enterprise groups) is limited to administrative data sources; direct surveys cover only large businesses
  • difficulties in maintaining industrial and geographic classifications for medium and smaller enterprises (primarily maintained on BF using administrative data) some classification data is imputed (estimated) in back-cast ANZSIC06 statistics – apply caution when using them
  • we introduced classification for Māori enterprises only in 2010. Due to small numbers, any detailed analysis of Māori enterprise and EC data should be done with caution.

More information on DataInfo+

Business Demography Statistics, abstract and coverage – DataInfo+
Metadata and general information.

Business Demography, glossary – DataInfo+ 
Definitions. 

Business Operations Survey (BOS)

About the Business Operations Survey

The main objective of the survey is to collect information on the operations of New Zealand businesses in order to quantify business behaviour, capacity, and performance. In addition, each module in the survey has its own specific objectives, see:

  • Module A: Business Operations. This module aims to provide a longitudinal series of information relating to business performance. This will assist in the development of models aimed at investigating causal relationships. As well as traditional measures of performance such as turnover and profitability, there is also a need to collect information on such areas as export intensity. The purpose of collecting information on business operations is to analyse any relationships between the environment in which a business operates and the results it achieves.
  • Module B: Innovation or Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The content of module B alternates between Innovation (odd years) and ICT (even years).
  • Module C or D: Contestable modules. The contestable module content changes year on year based on information needs, funding and significance to the national statistical collection.

Previous topics and at least partially included in this report are:

  • 2013: Business practices
  • 2014: Skills acquisition
  • 2015: International engagement.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

Although BOS surveys a relatively small proportion of business from the Māori Authority, SME and Tourism list, we included results for all three.

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Link to BOS definitions on DataInfo+ 

Reference period

Annual, with a notional end-date of September 30. Each year will capture responses from each enterprise referring to a balance date of that enterprise falling within the year. For example the latest period, 2015, collects information from across 1/10/2014 to 30/09/2015.

Coverage

The chief limit to BOS coverage is that it surveys only enterprises with at least 6 employees. Within that group coverage is:

  • Māori authorities: 16 percent
  • Māori SMEs: 33 percent
  • Māori tourism: 14 percent.

Limitations to the data

The results we publish from BOS data in Tatauranga Umanga Māori 2016: Statistics on Māori businesses were not weighted to represent the underlying population. Counts from the survey were randomly rounded to base 3 to protect confidentiality, so actual figures may differ from those stated. Owing to the small proportion of returns compared to each full list, use caution when you draw any broader inference from the results.

More information on DataInfo+

Business Operations Survey, abstract and purpose – DataInfo+
Metadata and general information. 
 

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Linked Employer-Employee Dataset (LEED)

About LEED

The Linked Employer-Employee Dataset (LEED) is created by linking a longitudinal employer series from the Statistics NZ Business Frame to a longitudinal series of EMS payroll data from Inland Revenue.

The Inland Revenue dataset is collected for the purpose of administering New Zealand’s taxation system. It consists of data from employer monthly schedule (EMS) and contains details of earnings, tax type, and tax deducted. It does not contain any information relating to the number of hours worked for those earnings.

The Business Frame is a regularly maintained list of all economically significant businesses and organisations (with a turnover greater than $30,000) engaged in the production of goods and services in New Zealand.

The base data received from LEED is of high quality, but cleaning, transformation, and integration processes are required before robust official statistics can be produced. This is necessary because these datasets are collected for different purposes and are not primarily designed for the production of statistics. Integration processes are required to merge the two sources, as the datasets are constructed differently. One of these processes allocates jobs from an IRD number to geographical units or physical locations associated with that employer.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

We extracted statistics for two separate lists, Māori authorities and Māori SMEs, and a third list that overlaps them, tourism. Thanks to the comprehensive nature of LEED we were able to present employment estimates for all three.

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Total filled jobs: The number of jobs (defined as an employer-employee match) on the 15th of the middle month of the reference quarter, and does not distinguish between part-time and full-time jobs.

Worker turnover rate: The ratio of the average of the total accessions and separations to the average of the total jobs in the reference quarter (t) and the previous quarter (t-1), as represented in the formula:

(accessions + separations)/2
––––––––––––––––––––––
(jobs(t) + jobs(t-1))/2

Reference period

LEED is an ongoing quarterly collection. We used ‘year to March 31’ in Tatauranga Umanga Māori 2016: Statistics on Māori businesses where an annual summary was called for.

Limitations to the data

Filled jobs are the number of jobs on the 15th of the middle month of the reference quarter, where the job relates to a person 15 years of age or over. Filled jobs below the national level are assigned to geographic locations on a modelled basis.

Information below ‘total all industry’ level results are not published for SMEs or tourism, due to confidentiality. Information below ‘total all region’ level results in many regions in the South Island not being published, due to confidentiality.

More information on LEED
Metadata and general information.

 

Overseas Merchandise Trade (OMT)

About Overseas Merchandise Trade

Overseas Merchandise Trade statistics provide statistical information on the importing and exporting of merchandise goods between New Zealand and other countries. Merchandise trade includes goods which add to or subtract from the material resources in New Zealand as a result of their movement in or out of the country. Data is obtained from export and import entry documents lodged with the New Zealand Customs Service (NZCS).

The purpose of OMT is to provide statistical information on the importing and exporting of merchandise goods between New Zealand and other countries.

Which Māori authorities or businesses we used for this report

We extracted statistics for two separate lists, Māori authorities and Māori SMEs. Thanks to the comprehensive nature of the OMT collection we were able to present merchandise trade statistics for each.

Definitions of measures you will find in the data

Commodity: This term does not necessarily denote one particular item. In most cases a ‘commodity’ occupies a sub-group in the Harmonised System Classification. In some few cases it can mean a very broad group (such as all kaimoana) or a fairly well-defined sub- group (such as wine).

Exports: Merchandise exports (excluding re-exports) are goods of domestic origin exported from New Zealand to another country.

Reference period

Figures in Tatauranga Umanga Māori 2016: Statistics on Māori businesses refer to a calendar year.

Limitations to the data

In most cases, information lodged with NZCS by exporters and importers is sufficient to identify Māori authorities and SMEs. In some instances, we could not match enterprises from NZCS data. This means that while our estimates of exports and imports for each list are of high quality, do not treat them as complete and comprehensive.

More information on DataInfo+

Overseas Merchandise Trade, abstract, usage and coverage – DataInfo+ 
Metadata and general information.

Overseas Merchandise Trade, concepts – DataInfo+ 
Definitions.

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