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Appendix 1: Data and definitions

Te Kupenga

The data for this report comes from Te Kupenga 2013. Te Kupenga is a survey of Māori well-being. It includes measures based on the Māori perspective of cultural well-being, including wairuatanga (spirituality), tikanga (Māori customs and practices), whanaungatanga (social connectedness), and te reo Māori. The survey also contains general social and economic well-being measures, such as paid and unpaid work, civil participation, and self-rated health status. These measures give an overall picture of the social, cultural, and economic well-being of Māori in New Zealand in 2013.

See Te Kupenga 2013 (data quality section) for more information.


Here are the definitions of the main measures and terms in this report.

Adult: a person who is usually resident in New Zealand and is aged 15 years or over.

Discrimination: to be discriminated against means to be treated unfairly or differently from other people.

Education qualification: measures a person’s highest level of formal education, based on the New Zealand Register of Quality Assured Qualifications (2003). For Te Kupenga, the 13 level 1 categories in the register are combined into four groups. Examples of the types of qualification in each group are: 

  • no qualification – no formal qualifications
  • level 1–4 certificate – eg school certificate, sixth form certificate, university entrance, NCEA or national certificate 1, 2, 3, or 4, trade certificates, and also people with any overseas secondary school qualifications
  • level 5–6 diploma – eg nursing or teaching diplomas, or advanced trade certificates
  • level 7 / bachelor's degree and above – eg qualifications from university, such as bachelor's degree, post-graduate diplomas and certificates, master's degree, and doctorate.

Employed: people in the working-age population who, during the week before their interview, did at least one of the following:

  • worked for pay, profit, or income for an hour or more
  • worked without pay in a family business or family farm
  • usually worked in a job, business, or farm but were not working during the week ended 3 March 2013 for some reason.

Ethnicity: the ethnic group or groups a person identifies with or feels they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality, or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

See New Zealand Standard Classification of Ethnicity 2005 for more information.

Labour force: members of the working-age population, who during the survey reference week, were classified as 'employed' or 'unemployed’.

Māori: defined, for the purposes of Te Kupenga, as individuals who identify themselves with Māori ethnicity or Māori descent.

Māori descent: a person is of Māori descent if they have any Māori ancestry; that is, they have a Māori birth parent, grandparent, great grandparent, etc.

See Māori Descent – Standard Classification for more information.

Material well-being: refers to the material aspect of well-being that is reflected in a person’s consumption and personal possessions – their household durables, clothing, recreations, access to medical services, and so on. Material well-being is measured by the material well-being index.

Not in the labour force: any person in the working-age population who is neither employed nor unemployed. For example, this residual category includes people who:

  • are retired
  • have personal or family responsibilities such as unpaid housework and childcare
  • attend educational institutions
  • are permanently unable to work due to physical or mental disabilities
  • were temporarily unavailable for work in the survey reference week
  • are not actively seeking work.

Trust in institutions: how much respondents trust institutions to treat people fairly. Responses were based on a scale of zero to 10, where zero is ‘not at all’ and 10 is ‘completely’. This question was asked about the following six institutions:

  • health system
  • education system
  • system of government
  • the police
  • the courts
  • the media.

Trust in people: how respondents thought most people in New Zealand can be trusted. Responses were based on a scale of zero to 10, where zero is ‘can never be trusted’ and 10 is ‘can always be trusted’.

Unemployed: people in the working-age population who, during the week ended 3 March 2013, were without a paid job and:

  • were available for work and had actively sought work in the four weeks ended 3 March 2013
  • had a new job to start within the next four weeks.

If a person’s only job search method was to read job advertisements then they are not considered to be actively seeking work.

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