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Glossary and references

Glossary

Applied research

Original work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge with a specific application in view. It is undertaken either to determine possible uses for the findings of basic research or to determine new ways of achieving some specific and predetermined objectives.

Experimental development

Systematic work, using existing knowledge gained from research or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products, devices, policies, behaviours, or outlooks; to installing new processes, systems, and services; or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

Fields of research classification

This classification allows research and development (R&D) activity to be categorised according to the field of research. In this respect, it is the methodology used in the R&D that is being considered.

Pure basic research

Experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.

Research and development

Research and development is defined according to the OECD Frascati Manual (2002) as "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."

Socio-economic objective classification

This classification allows research and development (R&D) activity to be categorised according to the purpose or outcome of the R&D, as perceived by the data provider (researcher).

Strategic basic research

Experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge, directed into specified broad areas in the expectation of practical discoveries. It provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for the solution of recognised practical problems.

Type of activity classification

This classification allows research and development activity to be categorised according to the type of research effort, namely, pure basic research, strategic basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

Residual categories

Don’t know

Use of this category is discretionary. The use of a category capturing don't know responses is most applicable to household surveys where don't know may be a legitimate response to certain questions.

Refused to answer

This category is only used when it is known that the respondent has purposefully chosen not to respond to the question. Use of this residual category in processing is optional. Its use is most applicable in face-to-face or telephone interviews, but may be used in self-completed questionnaires if the respondent has clearly indicated they refuse or object to answering the question.

Response unidentifiable

This category is used when there is a response given, but:

  • the response is illegible
  • it is unclear what the meaning or intent of the response is – this most commonly occurs when the response being classified contains insufficient detail, is ambiguous or is vague
  • the response is contradictory; for example, both the yes and no tick boxes have been ticked
  • the response is clear and seemingly within the scope of the classification, but cannot be coded because no suitable option (particularly other residual category options such as 'not elsewhere classified' or 'not further defined') exists in the classification or codefile.

Response outside scope

This category is used for responses that are positively identified (i.e., the meaning and the intent are clear) but which clearly fall outside the scope of the classification/topic as defined in the standard.

Not stated

This category is only used where a respondent has not given any response to the question asked; that is, it is solely for non-response.

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (1998). Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC),Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008). Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification, Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008). Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC). Available from www.abs.gov.au.

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